A Guide to QuarkXPress 2018

Text and typography

Text is an integral part of nearly every publication. QuarkXPress lets you create and edit text directly in your publications or import text from most popular word processing applications. In addition to the standard text formatting and editing features, QuarkXPress includes such features as finding and changing text and its attributes, spell checking, custom spelling dictionaries, and a font usage utility for making project-wide changes to text formatting.

Typography is the art of making the appearance of your text convey the tone or meaning of the content. QuarkXPress lets you control the tone of your text by letting you adjust every facet of typography, including typefaces, type styles, leading, and spacing.

The icon indicates text features that are considered East Asian features and are only available when you have the East Asian preference enabled (QuarkXPress/Edit( > Preferences > East Asian).

Editing text

To enter and import text into active text boxes, use the Text Content tool . Characters are entered at the text insertion point, indicated by the blinking line.

A story is all of the text in a text box. If a series of boxes is linked, all of the text in all of the boxes is a single story.

When you type in a text component, the text is entered at the text insertion point, which is indicated by the blinking line. A story is all of the text in a text box. If a series of boxes is linked, all of the text in all of the boxes is a single story.

You can select text using multiple mouse clicks. A double-click selects the word containing the text insertion point; a triple-click selects the line containing the text insertion point; four clicks selects the entire paragraph containing the text insertion point; five clicks selects the entire story.

When you double-click to select a word and cut or copy it, the application looks at the context of the word and adds or deletes a space automatically as needed when you paste the word in its new location. This feature is referred to as Smart Space. If you want an accompanying punctuation mark included with the word you're selecting, double-click between the word and its adjacent punctuation.

Fit Box to Text feature

If the text you have entered does not fit in the text box, the overflow symbol displays. Automatically adust the box size to fit the text by choosing Fit Box to Text from the context menu (or Item menu). The Fit Box to Text feature works on any shape or size of text box.

This feature is not available on locked boxes or when the proportion of the box is locked.

The Fit Box to Text feature can be used for boxes which have overflow or underflow.

The Fit Box to Text feature can be used for all kinds of text boxes, including linked boxes, multicolumn boxes, rotated boxes. It will work on text that has various attributes applied to as well as text containing footnotes and endnotes.

Importing and exporting text

To import text, do one of the following:

  • Select the Text Content tool , place the text insertion point where you want text to be inserted, and then choose File > Import. Check Convert Quotes option to convert double hyphens to em dashes and convert foot or inch marks to typesetter's apostrophes and quotation marks. Check Include Style Sheets to import style sheets from a Microsoft Word. Check Interpret XPress Tags to import XPress Tags file.

  • Drag a text file from the file system onto a text box.

  • Drag text from another application onto a text box.

  • Press Command/Ctrl and drag a text file from the file system onto a picture box or a no-content box.

  • Press Command/Ctrl and drag text from another application onto a picture box or a no-content box.

If you drag content onto a box that already contains text or a picture, QuarkXPress creates a new box for the dragged content. To replace the contents of the box instead, press Command/Ctrl while dragging the content to the box. To always create a new box for dragged-in content, press Option/Alt while dragging.

  • Place the text insertion point where you want text to be inserted, and then choose File > Import. Check Convert Quotes option to convert double hyphens to em dashes and convert foot or inch marks to typesetter's apostrophes and quotation marks. Check Include Style Sheets to import style sheets from a Microsoft Word Check Interpret XPress Tags to import XPress Tags file.

  • Drag a text file from the file system onto a text component.

  • Drag text from another application onto a text component.

  • Drag a text file from the file system onto a picture component and press Command/Ctrl to make the component accept the text.

  • Drag text from another application onto a picture component and press Command/Ctrl to make the component accept the text.

If all the imported text does not fit in the text box, the overflow symbol displays. After importing text into a box, you can choose Fit Box to Text from the context menu (or Item menu). If Auto Page Insertion (QuarkXPress/Edit > Preferences > Print Layout > General pane) is enabled, pages are inserted (when you import text into an automatic text box) as necessary to contain the text.

To export text, first either place the text insertion point in a text box (if you want to save all of the text in that box) or select the text you want to export. Then choose File > Save Text, choose an option from the Format pop-up menu, enter a name, choose a location, and then click Save.

To export in .docx format, choose Word Document from the Format drop-down menu.

Importing and exporting text with Unicode options

You can specify an encoding type when importing text and exporting text. The encoding type specifies the byte sequence used to represent each glyph in text.The options work as follows:

  • The Import dialog box includes an Encoding drop-down menu when a plain text or "XPress Tags" text file is selected. The software attempts to determine the encoding of selected text files and apply an appropriate encoding type. You can, however, choose a different option for text.

  • The Save Text dialog box provides an Encoding drop-down menu when you're exporting text in plain text or "XPress Tags" format.

  • The Convert Quotes option continues to convert straight quotes to typesetter's quotation marks and double hyphens to em dashes.

Word Filter

The Word Filter allows Word documents to be imported from, or exported to, .docx formats.

The deprecated format .doc is not supported.

To import a Word document:

  1. Choose File > Import

  2. The Import dialog displays.

  3. Choose Word Document (*.DOCM;*.DOCX;*.DOTM;*.DOTX)) from the Files of type drop-down menu. Select the Word file you wish to import.

  4. Specify the Word filter settings:

    • Check Convert Quotes to convert any quotes in the Word document to the format specified in Preferences (Edit > Preferences > Application > Input Settings). (Checked by default.)

    • Check Include Style Sheets to includes any style sheets that the imported Word document contains.

    • Check Include Footnotes to include any footnotes that the imported Word document contains. (Checked by default.)

    • Check Include as Static Footnotes to include any footnotes that the imported Word document contains as plain text footnotes. If this box is not checked the footnotes will be imported as dynamic QuarkXPress footnotes. (Unchecked by default.)

    • Check Include Tables to includes any tables that the imported Word document contains. The tables will be imported as legacy tables, allowing you to edit them in QuarkXPress.

    • Check Include Hyperlinks to includes any hyperlinks that the imported Word document contains. (Checked by default.)

    • Check Include Inline Pictures to includes any inline pictures that the imported Word document contains. (Checked by default.)

Finding and changing text

The Find/Change palette (Edit menu) lets you perform standard search-and-replace operations. In addition, you can use this palette to:

  • Find and change using wild card characters: Command+Shift+?/Ctrl+Shift+?

  • Find and change text formatting, including style sheet, font, size, color, and type style

  • Find and change OpenType styles

  • Find and change based on breaking or non-breaking spaces/dashes/hyphens within the text (i.e. you can search for all breaking spaces and replace them with non-breaking spaces.)

  • Constrain find/change operations to a single story, or to an entire layout

  • Find and change based on character language (see "Applying a character language")

  • Find and change ligatures

  • Find and change special characters (see "Special character codes")

  • Find and change emphasis marks (in East Asian configuration)

  • Search in Locked Content

  • Find and change text in Footnotes/ Endnotes. To enable Search in Footnote, you must first select Layout. When the Search In Footnotes option is checked, the Ignore Attributes option will be disabled and only text can be searched and replaced at that time.

Press Option/Alt to change the Find Next button to Find First.

The search text for the last 10 searches are saved in the drop-down menus under Find What and Change To.

To modify the Find/Change history count go to Edit > Preferences > Application > Open and Save > Find/Change History. The maximum number of instances which can be saved is 20. To turn off the find/ change history, set the value to 0

Use the Find/Change dialog box to search for and replace text.

To search and replace based on formatting attributes, uncheck Ignore Attributes.

Special character codes

You can use special character codes to find/change special characters. You can also use these codes when creating conditional styles.

Code

Character

Tab

\t

New paragraph

\p

New line

\n

New column

\c

New box

\b

Backslash

\\

Punctuation space

\.

Flex space

\f

Discretionary hyphen*

\h

Indent here

\I

Discretionary new line

\d

Em space

\m

En space

\e

3-per-Em space

\5

4-per-em space

\$

6-per-em space

\^

Figure space

\8

Hair space

\{

Thin space

\[

Zero width space

\z

Word joiner*

\j

Conditional style marker (Find/Change only)

\r

Footnote/Endnote reference marker*

\o

Content Variable reference*

\v

*Not applicable in conditional styles.

*You can only search for Footnote/Endnote reference markers or Content Variable references. You are unable to replace them.

Working with footnotes and endnotes

Footnotes and Endnotes consists of two linked parts: the reference number that appears in the text, and the Footnote/Endnote text that appears at the bottom of the text. Footnote text is created at the end of a page and Endnote text is created at the end of a story.

As you insert/delete Footnotes and Endnotes, they are automatically numbered as they are added to/deleted from the text. This numbering will restart with each new story. You can define the numbering style, appearance, and layout of Footnotes and Endnotes.

Footnotes and Endnotes can applied to text within an anchored box, including nested anchored boxes. The footnote text of the anchored text will appear at the bottom of the page while its endnote text will appear at the end of the document.

Footnotes/Endnotes adhere to the following rules:

  • Text export is not supported for Footnote/Endnote in any format in QuarkXPress.

  • Each Footnote/Endnote text is a different story, and thus the user cannot select all the Footnote/Endnote text toegther.

  • Footnotes/Endnotes can be copy pasted within the same project and across projects

  • Footnote/Endnotes can be imported from Microsoft Word (.docx) files.

Inserting footnotes and endnotes

To insert a Footnote or an Endnote:

  1. Place the insertion point where you want the Footnote/Endnote reference number to appear, or select the word for which you want to add a Footnote/Endnote.

  2. Choose Style > Footnote/Endnotes.

  3. Select Insert Footnote, Insert Endnote or Custom Footnote/Endnote from the drop down menu. If you choose Custom Footnote/Endnote, the Insert Footnote/Endnote dialog box appears:

    This allows you to select a Footnote style. User can change an applied Footnote style to a different style or to an Endnote style and vice versa.

    Footnote/Endnotes are supported for linked text chain and multi-column boxes. Footnote/Endnote text can flow across the text chain.

    Use the Restart Numbering option to restart the numbering of a Footnote/Endnote.

    Use the Custom Footnote/Endnote option to specify a custom mark as the Footnote/Endnote reference number.

  4. Type the Footnote/Endnote text.

The Footnote/Endnote is added to the document

When the insertion point is in the Footnote text, you can choose Style > Footnotes/Endnotes and select Return to Reference to return to the reference text.

You can select a Footnote/Endnote reference number and jump to the corresponding Footnote/Endnote text by choosing Style > Footnotes/Endnotes and select Go to Footnote/ Endnote.

You can insert Footnotes/Endnotes or return to reference using the following shortcut key commands:

  • Insert Footnote: Ctrl+ Alt+Shift+F1 (Windows); Cmd+ Opt+Shift+F1 (Mac OS X)

  • Insert Endnote: Ctrl+ Alt+Shift+F2 (Windows); Cmd+ Opt+Shift+F2 (Mac OS X)

  • Return to Reference: Ctrl+ Alt+Shift+F4 (Windows); Cmd+ Opt+Shift+F4 (Mac OS X)

Footnote/Endnote styles

To edit Footnote/Endnote styles, choose Window > Footnote Styles to display the Footnote Styles palette.

Use the Footnote Styles palette to add, edit, duplicate and delete footnote styles.

The buttons at the top of this palette let you add, edit, duplicate and delete Footnote styles. You can also apply a different Footnote/Endnote style on an already applied Footnote/Endnote reference number by clicking on the desired style in the palette. You can access the Insert Footnote/Endnote dialog using the Custom Footnote/Endnote button in the palette.

To add a new Footnote/Endnote style or to edit an existing Footnote/Endnote style, choose an existing Footnote style and click the button, or click the button.

The Edit Footnote Style dialog displays.

You can also display this dialog by choosing Edit > Footnote Styles to display the Footnote Styles dialog. Choose an existing Footnote style and click the Edit button, or click the New button.

Specify the attributes for your Footnote/Endnote style. The attributes in the top half of the dialog will be applied to the footnote/endnote reference text, the attributes under the Footnote/Endnote Formatting section of the dialog will be applied to the actual footnote text:

  • Name: Enter a name in this field, or the application will use a default "New Footnote Style" name.

  • Reference Type: Indicate if this will be a Footnote or an Endnote style.

  • Numbering Style: Select a numbering style that will be applied to the Footnote/Endnote reference numbers from the Numbering Style drop-down menu. To create a numbering style, see "Working with numbering styles

  • Marker Style: Select a marker style that will appear in the reference text from the Marker Style drop-down menu.There are 3 options: Superscript, Subscript and Inherit from Numbering. If the Inherit from Numbering option is selected, then the character styling applied on the selected numbering style will be applied as the marker style.

  • Start At: Specify the number used for the first Footnote in the story. Each story in a document begins with the same Start At number.

  • Restart Numbering: Specify when you wish to restart the numbering. Choose Never if you wish the numbering to never restart for the entire project. Choose or Each Section to specify when Footnote numbering is to be restarted. This option is only available only for Footnotes and not Endnotes.

  • Paragraph Style: To associate a paragraph style sheet with the Footnote/Endnote style, choose an option from the Paragraph Style drop-down menu. To create a paragraph style sheet, see "Creating and Editing Paragraph Style Sheets".

  • Character Format: Choose Inherit From Marker Style to retain the styling applied on the footnote/endnote reference number. To associate a different character styling with the footnote/endnote marker, choose a character style sheet from a list of character style sheets available in the Character Format drop-down menu. To create a character style sheet, see "Creating and Editing Character Style Sheets".

  • Prefix: Enter text that you want to appear before the footnote marker.

  • Suffix: Enter text that you want to appear after the footnote marker.

  • Space Separator: Select the space separator/s you want between the footnote/endnote marker and the text of the note.

  • Start Endnotes on New Page: Specify if you wish to to start the Endnotes from a new page or from the same page just after the end of the story. This option is available only for Endnotes, not Footnotes. By default, the Start Endnotes on New Page option is unchecked for an Endnote style.

    If you select Start Endnotes on New Page, then you should not set Auto Page Insertion in preferences to Off, otherwise Endnotes will not be displayed.

    The space between two footnotes/endnotes can be specified using the Space Before and Space After settings of the paragraph styling applied to the footnote text.

When you're done, click OK.

After you have added a Footnote/Endnote style, it is listed in the Footnote Style dialog (Edit > Footnote Styles) and also in the Footnote Styles palette (Window > Footnote Styles). The new style will be available when you attempt to insert a custom Footnote/Endnote into the text.

Footnote styles can be appended from another project

Footnote separators

The Footnote separator is the line separator between the parent text and Footnote text. The Footnote separator style is a box attribute and as such you can apply a different Footnote separators to different boxes in the same story, or to different stories in the same layout.

To add or edit Footnote separator styles, choose Edit > Footnote Styles to display the Footnote Styles dialog.

Select Footnote Separator Styles from the drop-down menu under Show:. The existing Footnote separator styles will be listed. Choose an existing Footnote separator style and click the Edit or Duplicate button, or click the New button.

The Edit Footnote Separator Style dialog displays:

Specify the attributes for the Footnote separator style:

  • Name: Enter a name in this field, or the application will use a default "New Footnote Separator Style" name.

  • Footnote Across Columns: Check to specify that the footnote should span columns in a multicolumn text box. Footnotes can be formatted to span across all columns. Footnotes for spanned column paragraphs will be listed below along with other footnotes as spanned footnotes. Footnote Across Columns will be checked by default for new documents created in QuarkXPress 2018 and later versions. When opening a project created in an earlier version of QuarkXPress, the Footnotes Across Columns option will be unchecked by default. 

  • Space Before: Specify the desired amount of space above the separator (between the body text and the separator).

  • Space After: Specify the desired amount of space below the separator (between the separator and the footnote/endnote text).

  • Rule for Separator Style: Check to specify the attrubutes for the main footnote separator style.

    If this box is not checked, there will be no separator between the text and the footnote.

  • Rule for Continued Separator Style: Check to specify the attributes of the separator style if the footnote will be continued onto a subsequent page or column.

    If this box is not checked and the footnote text flows onto the next page or column, there will be no separator between the text and the footnote on the second page or column. 

  • Style: Select a line style for the separator from the Style drop-down menu.

  • Width: Select a width or type in a value for the width of the separator from the Width drop-down menu.

  • Color: Select a color for the separator from the Color drop-down menu.

  • Shade: Select a shade or type in a value for the shade of the separator using the slider tool in the Shade drop-down menu.

  • Opacity: Select an opacity or type in a value for the opacity of the separator using the slider tool in the Opacity drop-down menu.

  • From Left: Specify the Left Indent offset for the separator. This value can be an absolute value or a relative value in terms of a percentage of the box.

  • From Right: Specify the Right Indent offset for the separator. This value can be an absolute value or a relative value in terms of a percentage of the box.

When you're done, click OK.

After you have added a Footnote separator style, it is listed in the Footnote Styles dialog (Edit > Footnote Styles).

To apply the new Footnote separator style, choose Style > Footnote Separator Style and select the new style.

Checking spelling

To check spelling, choose an option from the Utilities > Check Spelling submenu: Word, Story or Layout. The Check Spelling palette displays.

Check Spelling palette

To change the scope of the spell check, choose an option from the Check drop-down menu. The options are Word, Selection, End Of Story, Story, or Layout. If you choose Layout, the spell check skips applied master page items and then checks the master page(s) after checking spelling on all layout pages.

To check spelling in locked text boxes, cells, and paths, check Search Locked Content. Spell checking always starts from the text insertion point.

To start a spell check, click Start. To start the spell check from the beginning of the active story, Shift+click Start.

To replace a misspelled word, type the correct spelling in the Replace With field or choose the correct word from the list, then click Replace. To replace all occurrences of the misspelled word, click Replace All.

To look up suggestions for the word in the Replace With field, click Look up.

To skip the selected word, click Skip. After you have skipped a word, the Last Skipped button will be enabled. Clicking this button will take you back to the last word you skipped. The skip history will be maintained for the current spell check session only.

To add the word in the Replace With field to an auxiliary dictionary, click Add. If no auxiliary dictionary is open, you can select or create one after you click Add. To add all suspect words to an open auxiliary dictionary, press Option+Shift/Alt+Shift and click Add All.

To close the Check Spelling palette, click Done.

Spell check libraries have been updated for all languages.

Spell checking is restricted to text boxes on visible layers only.

You can click outside the Check Spelling palette and return to the palette to restart a spell check.

To reverse changes from the Check Spelling palette, choose Edit > Undo Text Change.

To display spell checking preferences, click Preferences. For more information, see "Preferences — Application — Spell Check."

Auxiliary dictionaries

To prevent a word from being flagged by the spell checker, create an auxiliary dictionary and add the word to that auxiliary dictionary.

To create an auxiliary dictionary, choose Utilities > Check Spelling > Auxiliary Dictionary, enter a name, and then click New.

To add words to an auxiliary dictionary, choose Utilities > Check Spelling > Edit Auxiliary.

Beginning with QuarkXPress 2015, Auxiliary Dictionarys are saved in .xml format. You will still be able to open legacy version documents and auxiliary dictionaries in QuarkXPress 2015 and later versions, but those dictionaries will get converted to .xml format.

Only one auxiliary dictionary at a time can be open for use with an document. An auxiliary dictionary remains associated with an document until you click Close in the Auxiliary Dictionary dialog box or until you open a different auxiliary dictionary.

Auxiliary dictionaries are saved as separate files on your hard drive. The path to an document's auxiliary dictionary is saved with the project, so if you move an open auxiliary dictionary to another folder or volume, the application will be unable to find it.

To create or open an auxiliary dictionary without closing the Check Spelling palette, click Add while a word you want to keep is highlighted.

To add all suspect words to an open auxiliary dictionary, press Option+Shift/Alt+Shift and click Add All.

Counting words and characters

To display a count of the words and characters in a laout or story, choose an option from the Utilities > Word and Character Count submenu: Layout or Story. The Story option will only be available if there is a story selected.

Word and Character Count dialog box

The Word Count area displays the number of total and unique words in the story or layout.

The Character Count area displays the total number of characters and specific language characters in the story or layout.

Private Use Characters are unique characters specified within a range of the Unicode character set by individuals, organizations, and software vendors outside the ISO and Unicode Consortium.

Working with grouped characters

Use the Group Characters dialog box (Style menu) to include a group of horizontal characters, such as Roman characters, within a vertical line of text. Grouped characters always display horizontally and do not break at the end of a line. To group selected characters:

  1. Choose Style > Group Characters.

  2. Choose Vertical or Horizontal from the Scale drop-down menu and enter a percentage in the field to the right of the Scale drop-down menu.

  3. If you want to change the character spacing, enter a value in the Track/Sending Amount field.

  4. Click OK.

Working with non-breaking character sets

Non-breaking characters are characters that cannot begin or end a line, and also which cannot be separated from each other at line breaks. The Non-Breaking Character Set dialog box (Edit > Non-Breaking Character Sets) includes default non-breaking character sets for Japanese Strong, Japanese Weak, Korean Standard, Simplified Chinese Standard and Traditional Chinese Standard.

To create custom non-breaking character sets:

  1. Choose Edit > Non-Breaking Character Sets. The Non-Breaking Character Sets dialog box displays.

  2. Click New.

  3. Enter a name in the Name field.

  4. Enter characters in the Enter characters that cannot begin a line field, the Enter characters that cannot end a line field, and the Enter non-separable characters field. The same character cannot be defined as Cannot Begin Line character and Cannot End Line character.

  5. Click OK.

  6. Click Save.

    To apply a non-breaking character set to a paragraph, choose one from the Non-Breaking Char Set drop-down menu in the Edit Hyphenation & Justification dialog box (Edit > H&Js > Edit).

Format painter

Format Painter allows you to copy formatting that is applied to one piece of text and apply it to others. The Format Painter will copy and apply all formatting that has been applied to that text including any applied style sheets (paragraph and character).

To use the Format Painter:

  1. Select the text with the desired formatting.

  2. Select the Format Painter in the Home or Character tab of the Measurements palette.

  3. Select the text that you wish to apply the desired formatting to.

IMPORTANT: Whether format painter applies only character formatting in addition to paragraph formatting is determined by the original selection; if you select a few characters, then only character formatting is applied, if you select several lines, paragraph formatting is also applied. Style sheets are never applied using the Format Painter.

 

Aligning characters on a line

The Character Alignment feature gives you several options for aligning small characters in a line of text to the largest character in a line of text. You can align characters based on their baselines, their em boxes, or their ICF boxes.

Em boxes are the bounding boxes of characters. The ideographic character face (ICF) box is a boundary inside the em box beyond which a glyph cannot extend. ICF boxes are necessary to ensure that glyphs in an East Asian text flow do not touch each other. The red area in the diagram below represents the boundaries of the em box. The yellow area represents the ICF box.

Red represents the em box. Yellow represents the ICF box. 

You can align smaller characters with the largest characters that appear in the same line of text in one of following ways:

  • Choose an option from the Style > Character Alignment submenu.

  • Choose an option from the Char Align drop-down menu on the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette..

The alignment options are:

  • ICF Box Top: Aligns small characters with the top of the ICF box.

  • Embox Top: Aligns small characters with the top edge of the em box of the largest character in a line of horizontal text.

  • Embox Bottom: Aligns small characters with the bottom edge of the em box of the largest character in a line of horizontal text.

  • Embox Center: Aligns small characters with the center of the em box of the largest character.

  • Embox Right: Aligns small characters with the right edge of the em box of the largest character in a line of vertical text.

  • Embox Left: Aligns small characters with the left edge of the em box of the largest character in a line of vertical text.

  • Roman Baseline: Aligns small characters with the baseline of the largest character.

  • ICF Box Bottom: Aligns small characters with the bottom of the ICF box.

Examples of horizontal character alignment
Examples of vertical alignment

Applying character attributes

QuarkXPress lets you maintain precise, character-by-character control over text formatting.

Applying a font

To apply a font to selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Choose a font family and a font style from the Font drop-down menus in the Home or Character tab of the Measurements palette.

  • Press Command+Option+Shift+M/Ctrl+Alt+Shift+M to jump directly to the font field in the Measurements palette, enter the first few characters of the font name until it is recognized, then press Return/Enter. Now select a font style from the font style menu.

Your most recently used fonts display at the top of any font list. Specify the number of recently used fonts you want displayed in Preferences > Application > Fonts. To turn this feature off, specify a 0.

Font Listing

Font families and available font styles (Roman, Bold, etc.) are now listed in two separate lists. 

Previously, font styles of a font family were not accessible in the font menu on Windows. Only Plain, Bold, Italics, and Bold Italics styles were accessible through type style control on Windows. On macOS, all font styles of a font family were made available in a separate subgroup in the font menu and font styles were displayed with their full names.

All font styles of a font family are accessible in the font menus on Windows and macOS. Font styles for a font family are sorted in the font style menu.  

Font styles are also mapped to the type styles buttons P/B/ I in the palettes and dialogs. 

(Windows only):To display font previews in font menus, check the Show in Font Menu box in the Fonts pane of the Preferences dialog box (QuarkXPress/Edit menu). Press Shift to temporarily override this preference.

(Mac OS X only): QuarkXPress automatically shows a preview of all typefaces in the font pop-ups. Press Shift to temporarily override this preference.

Choosing a font size

You can apply font sizes from 2 to 16128 points. To apply a size to selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Choose a size from the size menu in the Home or Character tab of the Measurements palette

  • Click the arrow next to the current font size to display a list of point sizes, then either choose a size from the list or enter a new point size.

  • Use the ticker controls with or without Shift or Alt/ Opt modifier to modify the size

  • Use one of the keyboard commands below.

Mac OS X
  • Increase 1 pt: Command+Option+Shift+>

  • Decrease 1 pt: Command+Option+Shift+<

  • Increase in preset range: Command+Shift+>

  • Decrease in preset range: Command+Shift+<

Windows
  • Increase 1 pt: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+>

  • Decrease 1 pt: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+<

  • Increase in preset range: Ctrl+Shift+>

  • Decrease in preset range: Ctrl+Shift+<

Applying type styles

To apply a type style to selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Choose Style > Type Style and choose a type style from the submenu.

  • Choose a type style from the Text Styles drop-down menu in the Measurements palette. Apply bold and italic type styles using the icons to the left of the Text Styles drop-down menu. To remove all styles (except Bold and Italics) from selected text, choose Remove All Styles from the Text Styles drop-down menu.

Intrinsic fonts are distinct font styles built into font families, such as “Times New Roman MT Std Bd” in the “Times New Roman MT Std” font family.

Simulated fonts are plain intrinsic fonts that have been modified to simulate bold, italic, or bold italic. When a font family does not include a bold or italic variation as a separate intrinsic font, you can apply the bold and italic type styles to allow your operating system to perform a transform to create a bold or italic rendition of the font. The result is a simulated font.

When you apply bold to a plain font, the application first tries to find an intrinsic bold version of the font, and then if it can't find such a font, it creates a simulated bold version of the font.

Warning icons identify simulated fonts in a layout because simulated fonts can cause output problems. Simulated fonts display with a warning icon in the Measurements palette, the Glyphs palette, the Character Attributes dialog box, the Style > Type Style submenu, the Edit Character Style Sheet dialog box, the Change To area of the Find/Change palette, the Fonts pane of the Usage dialog box (Utilities menu), the Replace Font dialog box accessible from the Usage dialog box, and the Character Attributes tab of the Rubi dialog box.

Applying color, shade, and opacity

To apply color, shade, and opacity to selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Choose options from the Style > Color, Style > Shade, and Style > Opacity submenus.

  • Display the Colors palette (Window > Show Colors), click a color, and then choose or enter Shade and Opacity values.

  • Use the color, shade, and opacity controls in the Home or Character tab of the Measurements palette.

  • Use the color, shade, and opacity controls in the Measurements palette.

Applying horizontal or vertical scale

To apply horizontal or vertical scaling to selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Choose Scale Text Horizontally or Scale Text Vertically from the Character tab of the Measurements palette, and enter a value in the field.

  • Use the ticker controls with or without Shift or Alt/ Opt modifier to modify the scale value.

  • Use one of the keyboard commands below. If a range of text is selected that has both horizontal and vertical scaling applied, the keyboard commands will increase or decrease the text accordingly.

You cannot apply horizontal and vertical scaling values simultaneously.

Mac OS X
  • Condense 5%: Command+[

  • Expand 5%: Command+]

  • Condense 1%: Command+Option+[

  • Expand 1%: Command+Option+]

Windows
  • Condense 5%: Ctrl+[

  • Expand 5%: Ctrl+]

  • Condense 1%: Ctrl+Alt+[

  • Expand 1%: Ctrl+Alt+]

Applying baseline shift

You can place characters above or below their baseline without affecting paragraph spacing. A positive value raises the text; a negative value lowers the text. To apply baseline shift to selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Enter a value in the Baseline field of the Character tab of the Measurements palette.

  • Use the ticker controls with or without Shift or Alt/ Opt modifier to modify the baseline shift value.

  • Use one of the keyboard commands below.

Mac OS X
  • Down 1 pt: Command+Option+Shift+-

  • Up 1 pt: Command+Option++

Windows
  • Down 1 pt: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+9

  • Up 1 pt: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+0

Applying emphasis value

To apply an emphasis mark to a character, select the character, click the Emphasis Mark drop down in the Text Styles menu on the Home or Character tab of the Measurements palette to display the emphasis mark options, and then click one of the options. These options are also available in the Emphasis Mark drop-down menu under Style > Type Style.

Applying text stroke

QuarkXPress allows you to draw an outline (or stroke) around individul text characters.

You can define the color, width and type of join of your strokes. You can define a text stroke as part of a character or paragraph style sheet.

To apply a text stroke to selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Use a character style sheet.

  • To apply a text stroke to entire paragraphs, use a paragraph style sheet, and choose (or define) a character style sheet that defines a text stroke from the Character Style drop down menu on the General tab.

  • Use the Character tab of the Measurements palette.

Define the following:

  • Stroke - Choose a color from the drop-down menu. Choose to display the Edit Color dialog to define a new color for the text stroke.

  • Choose a % using the slider to apply the shade of the selected color.

  • Width - Define the desired width of the stroke as an absolute value (up to 500 pt). You can also define the width as a percentage of the text. The width of the stroke will then be dependent on the font size and increase/decrease proportionally if you change the font size. A percentage value must be between 0 and 50%.

  • Join - Select the type of join to specify the appearance of the stroke at corner points that extend beyond the end points of the text.

    • Miter Join : Creates a pointed corner which extends beyond the endpoint when the miter's length is within the miter limit. The Miter Limit field will only be available for a Miter Join. The value of the Miter Limit field can be 1 to 255.

    • Round Join : Creates rounded corners which extend half the stroke width beyond the endpoint.

    • Bevel Join : Creates squared corners which abut the endpoints.

  • Miter Limit - For a Miter Join, choose the Miter Limit from the drop-down menu.

  • Check No Fill to change the color of the text to no color. This selection is only available if the width of the text stroke is > 0.

Controlling half-width characters

To keep half-width characters (such as Roman characters) horizontal in a vertical story, check the Keep Half-Width Characters Upright box on the Character tab of the Measurements palette.

Working with font sets

Font sets let you control how different types of characters — such as Alphabetic (Roman) and Han characters — display when they occur together in text.

You can create a new font set in the Edit Font Set dialog box (Edit > Font Sets). Each font set is composed of a set of font types, each of which has its own settings.

Use the Edit Font Set dialog box to configure a font set.

For each type in a font set, you can control the following:

  • Font: Specify a font family for each type of the character group.

  • Style: Specify a font style for selected font family for each type of the character group

  • Relative Size: Specify the relative size of each font based on the font size used in the layout. For example, if the font size in your layout is 12 points, and you specify a relative setting of 200%, the font displays at 24 points.

  • Baseline Shift: Specify a value to raise or lower the font from its baseline.

  • Scale Direction: Specify whether the font is scaled horizontally or vertically.

  • Scale Amount: Specify the amount of horizontal or vertical scaling.

The Sample Text area of the dialog box displays sample text that uses each of the fonts in the font set.

You can apply a font set to text in the same way that you apply a font to text. Simply select the text and choose a font set from the font drop-down menu in the Measurements palette. Font sets display at the top of the list.

To append a font set to a project, use the Append button in the Font Sets dialog box (Edit > Font Sets).

Applying multiple character attributes

You can view and edit all character attributes at one time using the Character tab of the Measurements palette.

Blank fields and gray check boxes indicate that multiple styles are applied to selected text. For example, if the Font field is blank, then more than one font is applied to the selected text.

If you enter a value in a blank field, that value will be applied to all the selected text. If you check or uncheck a gray check box, that style setting will be applied to or removed from all selected text.

Use the Character tab of the Measurements palette to format text.

Applying paragraph attributes

Paragraph attributes are formatting options that apply to a paragraph as a whole. They include alignment, indents, leading, and tab settings. To apply attributes to selected paragraphs, use the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

You can copy any applied paragraph formats from one paragraph to other paragraphs in the same box or text chain. To copy applied paragraph formats, select the paragraph or range of paragraphs that you want to change, then press Option+/Alt+Shift while clicking anywhere in the paragraph with the formats you want to copy. Copying paragraph formats in this way will not change any character attributes.

Controlling alignment

You can choose from five paragraph alignments: Left, Centered, Right, Justified, and Forced. The Forced option aligns all lines between the left and right indentations, like the Justified option, but also justifies the last line (if there is a return at the end of the paragraph).

To set the alignment of selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Choose an alignment from the Style > Alignment submenu.

  • Click an alignment icon in the Home tab or the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

  • Use one of the keyboard commands below.

Mac OS X
  • Left : Command+Shift+L

  • Centered : Command+Shift+C

  • Right : Command+Shift+R

  • Justified :Command+Shift+J

  • Forced : Command+Option+J

Windows
  • Left : Ctrl+Shift+L

  • Centered : Ctrl+Shift+C

  • Right : Ctrl+Shift+R

  • Justified : Ctrl+Shift+J

  • Forced : Ctrl+Alt+Shift+J

Controlling indentation

You can specify indents for selected paragraphs in the following ways:

  • Use the Style > Alignment submenu

  • Use the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette

Use the following fields to specify the indents:

  • To specify how far a paragraph is indented from the left edge of a box or column, enter a value in the Left Indent field.

  • To specify how far the first line of a paragraph is indented from the Left Indent value, enter a value in the First Line field. Note that First Line indentation is relative to the Left Indent applied to a paragraph. For example, if you specify a Left Indent of .5", and a First Line indentation of .5", the first line will begin 1" from the left edge of the text box. First Line indent can be specified in terms of absolute value or in terms of Em %

  • To specify how far a paragraph is indented from the right edge of a box or column, enter a value in the Right Indent field. Click OK.

  • To create a hanging indentation, specify a positive Left Indent and a negative First Line indentation or drag the indentation icons on the column ruler. .

In addition to setting hanging indents as a paragraph attribute, you can enter a special character that forces the indenting of all lines of text from that point to the next paragraph return. Press Command+\ (Mac OS X) or Ctrl+\ (Windows) to enter a special Indent Here character. (The Indent Here character is an invisible character; to view invisible characters, choose View > Invisibles (Command+I/Ctrl+I.)

Alignment and indentations are both measured from the Text Inset field on the Text Box tab of the Measurements palette. The Text Inset value affects the four sides of a text box; it does not affect the inner columns of a text box.

Controlling leading

Leading is a measure of line spacing — the distance between text baselines in paragraphs. When you specify a leading value, it is applied to all lines in selected paragraphs. You can specify leading by four methods:

  • Absolute leading sets the distance between baselines of text to a specific value, regardless of the size of characters on the lines. For example, if you specify an absolute leading value of 16 points for a paragraph, all baselines will be spaced 16 points apart. When specifying absolute leading, use a value that is the total vertical distance you want between text baselines.

  • Proportional leading allows you to set the leading in terms of a percentage, dependent upon the font size. Each paragraph can then have a different leading depending on the largest font size in the paragraph. For example, if you specify a proportional leading value of 50% and the font size of the tallest character in the paragraph is 36 pt, all baselines will be spaced 54 points apart (36 plus 50% of 36). Using proportional leading can solve problems that can appear with text that contains inline graphics, inline boxes and inline tables. The boundary value limit for proportional leading is -100% to 5000%

    When importing Word documents, the text is automatically mapped using proportional leading.

  • Incremental leading combines a base amount of auto leading with an absolute value specified in the Leading field. Incremental leading values must be preceded by a plus (+) or minus (–) sign.

  • Auto leading means the application uses the value in the Auto Leading field (QuarkXPress/Edit > Preferences > Paragraph pane) to decide whether percentage-based or incremental auto leading occurs. The default — percentage-based — takes the base amount of auto leading and adds to it a fixed percentage of the largest font size on the upper line to determine the total amount of leading between an auto-leaded line and the line above it. The default value for percentage-based auto leading is 20%. To specify auto leading, enter auto or 0pt in the Leading field.

To set the alignment of selected paragraphs, do one of the following things: 

  • Use the Leading controls in the Home or Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

    Use keyboard increments to automatically increase/decrease the value in this field. See "Palettes" for more information.

  • Use the ticker controls with or without Shift or Alt/ Opt modifier to modify the leading.

  • Use one of the keyboard commands below.

Mac OS X
  • Decrease 1 pt: Command+Shift+:

  • Decrease .1 pt: Command+Option+Shift+:

  • Increase 1 pt: Command+Shift+"

  • Increase .1 pt: Command+Option+Shift+"

Windows
  • Decrease 1 pt: Ctrl+Shift+:

  • Decrease .1 pt: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+:

  • Increase 1 pt: Ctrl+Shift+"

  • Increase .1 pt: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+"

Controlling space before and after paragraphs

Space Before and Space After controls let you specify the amount of space before and after selected paragraphs.

To set the space before and after selected paragraphs, use the Space Before Paragraph and Space After Paragraph controls in the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

Controlling column flow

The Column Flow controls let you specify how text flows in relation to columns.

To set the column flow in selected paragraphs:

  1. Use the Column Flow tab of the Measurements palette.

  2. Define the following fields to specify the column flow:

    (A column block is any span/split column paragraphs that have similar column flow attributes applied.)

    • Flow Order - Select Continuous (the default flow order) to leave the selected paragraph in its original column or Restart to move the paragraph to the start of the column block. The Restart option can be selected either independently or along with the Span Columns option.When choosing Restart, the text in the paragraphs before the selected paragraph will be rebalanced among the columns.

    • Select Span/Split Columns to specify that you want to change the way the paragraph flows:

      • Type - select Span Columns to have the paragraph span across columns or Split Columns to have the paragraph split between 2 or more columns.

        You can use the Split Columns option to achieve a multi-column effect on selected paragraphs in a single-column box.

      • Columns - select the number of columns you want the paragraph to span, or be split into. For Span Columns you can choose All or a number from 2 to 30. (All refers to any number of columns in the text box which are 30 or above.) For Split Columns the value must be a number from 2 to 30.

      • Space Before- set the space before the selected paragraphs.

      • Space After- set the space after the selected paragraphs.

        Spacing between column blocks: If a column block has multiple paragraphs, then Space Before will be taken from first paragraphs and similarly Space After would be taken from the last paragraph of the block.

        If Space Before and/or Space After attributes are specified in both the Paragraph tab  and the Column Flow tab of the Measurements palette, the larger value will be applied, they will not be added.

        Between two column blocks (span/span; span/ split; split/ split; split/ span), the Space Before and/or Space After values applied in Paragraph tab will be applied .

      • Gutter Width- set the gutter width for split columns.

    • Select Line Between to apply a separator line between coloumns, and use the drop-down menus for Style, Width, Color, Shade and Opacity to specify the appearance of the separator.

      This option is only available for Split Columns.

Column flow examples

The following images illustrate some possible outcomes that can be achieved with column flow.

 

Setting tabs

You can choose from six kinds of tab stops:

  • Left aligns text flush left on the tab stop.

  • Center aligns text centrally on that tab stop.

  • Right aligns text flush right on the tab stop.

  • Decimal aligns text on a decimal point (period).

  • Comma aligns text on a first comma.

  • Align On aligns text on any character you specify. When you select this tab, the Align On field displays. Select the existing entry, and enter the character to align on.

If you do not set custom tabs, the application sets default left-aligned tabs every half-inch.

To apply tabs to selected paragraphs,  :Use the controls in the Tabs tab of the Measurements palette. Using the Measurements palette conserves screen space, and you continuously see the effects updated as you change tab settings. You can drag tab icons to the ruler or drag tab icons directly into text. When you are dragging tabs to the ruler or to text, a vertical line displays on screen to help you decide where to position the tab.

Controlling widow and orphan lines

Widows and orphans are two kinds of typographically undesirable lines. Traditionally, a widowis defined as the last line of a paragraph that falls at the top of a column. An orphan is the first line of a paragraph that falls at the bottom of a column.

Using the Keep Lines Together feature, you can choose not to break paragraphs, so that if all the lines in a paragraph do not fit in a column or on a page, the whole paragraph will flow to the top of the next column or page. Alternatively, you can specify the number of lines that must be left at the bottom of a column or box, and at the top of the following column or box, when a paragraph is broken. Using the Keep with Next ¶ feature, you can keep a paragraph together with the paragraph that follows it. This lets you keep a subhead together with the paragraph that follows it, or keep other lines of text that logically go together from being separated.

It is common to specify Keep with Next ¶ for headline and subhead style sheets and specify Keep Lines Together (usually with Start and End parameters) for body text style sheets.

To turn the Keep Lines Together and Keep with Next ¶ features on or off for selected paragraphs, use the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

Working with text shading

Text shading can be applied to a paragraph as a whole or to just a selection of text within a paragraph.

Creating and editing text shading styles

A text shading style is a named collection of text shading attributes. You can apply the attributes of a text shading style's to text by simply applying the style to the text.

To create a new text shading style or edit an existing one:

  1. Open the Text Shading Styles dialog, (Edit > Text Shading Styles).

  2. Choose an existing text shading style from the list and click Edit to edit it, or click New to add a new text shading style.

    Alternatively, you can use the Text Shading Styles (Window > Text Shading Styles) palette to create and edit text shading styles.

    The Edit Text Shading Style dialog displays.

  3. Enter a name for this text shading style in the Name field, or the application will use a default "New Text Shading Style" name.

  4. Define the attributes in the Shade tab:

    • Color: Choose a color for the text shading from the drop-down menu. Choose New from the menu to create a new color for the shading.

    • Shade: Enter or use the slider control to specify the shade of the color in terms of a percentage.

    • Opacity: Enter or use the slider control to specify the opacity value of the color from 0% (transparent) to 100% (opaque).

    • Length: Choose one of the following options from the drop-down: Indents (text shading will be applied to the entire line between the defined indents), Text (text shading will be applied only the length of the text in each line), or Column (shading will be applied to the entire length of the box).

    • Check Clip To Box to confine the text shading to the bounding box.

    • In the Offsets section, specify the Left, Right, Top, and Bottom offsets.

  5. Define the attributes in the Border tab:

     

    • Width: Specify the width of the frame .

    • Style: Choose a frame style from the drop-down menu.

    • Color: Choose a color for the frame from the drop-down menu. Choose New from the menu to create a new color for the frame.

    • Shade: Enter or use the slider control to define the shade percentage.

    • Opacity: Enter or use the control to specify an opacity value from 0% (transparent) to 100% (opaque).

    • In the Offsets section, specify the Left, Right, Top, and Bottom offsets.

    • Specify whether or not you want the frame to appear on the top, bottom, left and right of the selected text by clicking the buttons in the preview section.

If you edit an existing text shading style, the changes will be applied immediately wherever this text shading style has been used in the layout.

Once you have created a text shading style, you can use this style in both paragraph and character style sheets. Select it from the Text Shading drop-down menu in the Edit Character Style Sheet dialog or in the Formats tab of the Edit Paragraph Style Sheet dialog.

Applying text shading

To apply shading to existing text:

  1. Select the text to be shaded. To apply shading to an entire paragraph, place the cursor anywhere in the paragraph.

  2. Do one of the following things:

    • Display the Text Shading Styles palette (Window > Text Shading Styles) and select a defined text shading style to apply to the text.

    • Use the controls in the Text Shading tab of the Measurements palette.

    • Apply a defined text shading style to either a character or paragraph style sheet and apply that style sheet to the text.

You can select an empty text box or an empty paragraph in a text box as Step1. After Step 2, the text shading style will be applied to the text as you are typing.

There is a difference between applying text shading to an entire paragraph, or to just selected text. When using the Text Shading tab of the Measurements palette, there is a drop-down menu allowing you to choose Paragraph or Text.

When using the Text Shading Styles palette, this is generally determined by what you selected before choosing a text shading style to apply, with a few exceptions.

  • If you select the Paragraph button and then apply text shading, the text shading is applied to the complete paragraph even if text was previously selected.

  • If you select the Text button and then apply text shading, the text shading is applied to the selected text. If text was not selected then the text shading will begin at the cursor and the shading will be visible as you start typing.

This is what applying text shading to selected text looks like. it appears that the shading is applied to each line individually, with the frame around each line:

This is what applying text shading to an entire paragraph looks like:

You can choose to shade an entire paragraph and then shade selected text within that paragraph:

Controlling kerning

Kerning is the adjustment of space between character pairs. Because of their shapes, certain character pairs look better when kerned. You can use automatic kerning, and you can also use manual kerning controls to specify additional kerning between characters.

Kerning values are expressed as 1/200 of an em space. A positive kerning value increases the amount of space between characters; a negative value decreases it.

Kerning manually

To apply kerning between two characters, do one of the following things: 

  • Use the Kern Amount controls in the Measurements palette.

  • Use the ticker controls with or without Shift or Alt/ Opt modifier to modify the size

  • Use one of the keyboard commands below.

Mac OS X
  • Decrease 1/20-em: Command+Shift+{

  • Increase 1/20-em: Command+Shift+}

  • Decrease 1/200-em: Command+Option+Shift+{

  • Increase 1/200-em: Command+Option+Shift+}

Windows
  • Decrease 1/20-em: Ctrl+Shift+{

  • Increase 1/20-em: Ctrl+Shift+}

  • Decrease 1/200-em: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+{

  • Increase 1/200-em: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+}

Kerning automatically

To automatically kern text above a specific point size, display the Character pane of the Preferences dialog box (QuarkXPress/Edit menu), check Auto Kern Above, and enter a value in the field.

QuarkXPress uses kerning information that is built into the font (the font's kerning table). A kerning table contains a number of character pairs — "Ta," for example — and an associated kerning value for each pair in the table. You can't change a font's kerning table, but you can create a custom kerning table for any font using the Kerning pairs dialog box (Edit menu). You can use this dialog box to customize both horizontal (With-Stream) and vertical (Cross-Stream) space in kerning pairs.

You can create your own kerning tables in QuarkXPress.

Controlling hyphenation and justification

A hyphenation and justification (H&J) specification is a named package of settings for hyphenating words that go over the margin of a line of text and for justifying spaces between words and characters. You can apply H&Js to individual paragraphs, or you can associate an H&J with a paragraph style sheet. Use the Edit Hyphenation & Justification dialog box (Edit > H&Js > New) to control these settings.

The Edit Hyphenation & Justification dialog box
  • Auto Hyphenation: Specify whether automatic hyphenation is allowed.

  • Smallest Word: Specify the minimum number of characters a word must contain to allow hyphenation.

  • Minimum Before: Specify the minimum number of characters before a hyphen.

  • Minimum After: Specify the minimum number of characters after a hyphen.

  • Break Capitalized Words: Specify whether hyphenation of capitalized words is allowed.

  • Strictness Level: Specify the strictness level for auto hyphenation. Strictness level is not hard  coded within the application. 

    You can choose from the following strictness levels:

    • Compounds Only

    • Nominal

    • Aesthetic

    • Prevalent: This is the default level when opening creating a new project in QuarkXPress 2018

    • Everywhere

    • As 2017 and Earlier: This is the default Strictness Level when opening a legacy document in QuarkXPress 2018.

    The Strictness level feature is only supported by Dieckmann hyphenation libraries (Extended 2 hyphenation method). In QuarkXPress 2017 and earlier, some languages like US English and International English did not support Dieckmann hyphenation libraries. In QuarkXPress 2018, all languages support Dieckmann hyphenation libraries (Extended 2 hyphenation method).

    When opening a project created in QuarkXPress 2017 or earlier,  an informative icon will be displayed in the Edit Hyphenation & Justification dialog indicating that the Strictness Level feature is only supported for the Extended 2 hyphenation method. Users are required to enable the Extended 2 hyphenation method in Preferences (Preferences > Paragraph > Hyphenation Method) to enable applying hyphenation strictness levels to a legacy document.

    Support for all non- Dieckmann hyphenation libraries (e.g. ‘Standard’, ‘Expanded’, ‘Enhanced’) have been dropped for new documents created in QuarkXPress 2018. XTension developer created hyphenation libraries will continue to be supported for QuarkXPress 2018.

  • Hyphens in a Row: Specify how many words can be hyphenated in consecutive line ends.

  • Hyphenation Zone: Specify the area before the right indentation in which hyphenation can occur. For example, if you set the hyphenation zone to .05", the word is hyphenated when an acceptable hyphenation point falls within .05" of the right indentation. The word preceding the hyphenated word must not fall within the hyphenation zone.

  • Justification Method: Specify how words and characters are spaced.

  • Space: Specify the minimum and maximum amount of space between words in paragraphs that have justified or forced alignment. Specify the optimum amount of space between words in all paragraphs, regardless of their alignment.

  • Char: Specify the minimum and maximum amount of space between characters in paragraphs that have justified or forced alignment. Specify the optimum amount of space between characters in all paragraphs, regardless of their alignment.

  • Non-Breaking Char Set: Choose a non-breaking character set from the drop-down menu. For more information about non-breaking character sets, see "Working with non-breaking character sets."

  • Non Breaking Method: Choose a non-breaking method from the drop-down menu. When the last character in a line of justified text is a non-breaking character that cannot end a line, Run Back pulls the first character of the next line up to the current line, based on the value in the Min. field. Run Down pushes the character to the next line, based on the value in the Max. field.

  • R Space: Specify the amount of space between words containing Roman characters in justified paragraphs. Specify the optimum amount of space between words containing Roman characters in all paragraphs, regardless of their alignment.

  • EA Punct: Specify the minimum and maximum amount of space between East Asian punctuation characters in justified paragraphs. Specify the optimum amount of space between East Asian punctuation characters in all paragraphs, regardless of their alignment.

  • Kana/Hangul/ZhuYin: Specify the minimum and maximum amount of space between Kana, Hangul, or Zhu Yin characters in justified paragraphs. Specify the optimum amount of space between Kana, Hangul, or Zhu Yin characters in all paragraphs, regardless of their alignment.

  • Han: Specify the minimum and maximum amount of space between Han characters in justified paragraphs. Specify the optimum amount of space between Han characters in all paragraphs, regardless of their alignment.

  • R Char: Specify the minimum and maximum amount of space between Roman characters in justified paragraphs. Specify the optimum amount of space between Roman characters in all paragraphs, regardless of their alignment.

  • Flush Zone: Specify the area before the right indentation within which the last word in the last line of a justified paragraph must fall in order to justify that line. For example, if you enter 1", the last line of a paragraph to which the hyphenation and justification specification is applied will not be justified until the last word in the line falls within 1" of the right indentation.

  • Single Word Justify: Specify whether a single word on a line in a justified paragraph extends from the left indentation to the right indentation. When the box is unchecked, a single word on a line is left-aligned.

  • Break on Spaces: Specify whether Chinese, Japanese, and Korean text breaks on spaces.

To enable/ disable justification settings for East Asian text categories of EA Punct, Han, Kana/ Hangul/ ZhuYin specified in H&J, go to Preferences > Layout > General

Specifying hyphenation exceptions

In QuarkXPress, you can create language-specific lists of hyphenation exceptions. The Hyphenation Exceptions dialog box (Utilities > Hyphenation Exceptions > Edit) has a Language drop-down menu that lets you specify which language a hyphenation exception applies to. When a paragraph is automatically hyphenated, the application checks the list of hyphenation exceptions for the appropriate paragraph language.

The Hyphenation Exceptions dialog box

The Suggested Hyphenation dialog box (Utilities menu) displays the recommended hyphenation of a word that is based on the hyphenation method specified for the paragraph and the hyphenation exceptions for the paragraph's language.

Hyphenation exception files

Hyphenation exception lists can be stored in separate .xml files. These .xml files can than be imported into your project and also exported and shared with other users and projects. This allows the same list of hypenation exceptions to be used in multiple projects.

Hyphenation exception files can be imported and applied at the layout level so different layouts in the same project can have separate .xml files applied. You apply the desired external hyphenation exception file to a layout through a Job Jacket, as a job jacket resource. (see "Job Jackets with hyphenation exceptions")

After you have applied a hyphenation exception file to a project, if you change anything in the .xml file, these changes will be reflected in the project the next time you open the project. In addition, any changes made to hyphenation exceptions in the project will be reflected in the linked .xml file.

This two-way link works only when the.xml file is linked through a Job Jacket, we do not link thexml file directly to a layout.

Importing hyphenation exeption files

To import hyphenation exception files:

  1. Choose Utilities > Hyphenation Exceptions > Import. The Select Hyphenation Exceptions File dialog box displays.

    The Select Hyphenation Exceptions File dialog box
  2. Search for and select the hyphenation exception .xml file you wish to import.

  3. Check Append to Existing (default) to append the hyphenation exceptions to an existing list.

    If there are conflicts between words on the old list and the list you are attempting to append, a conflict resolution window will open. This allows you to choose to keep the old hyphenation exception (Use Existing), or replace it with the new hyphenation exception from the .xml file you are importing (Replace).

    The Conflict Resolution window.
  4. Check Replace All to replace any existing hyphenation exceptions with the hyphenation exceptions in the file you have selected. Check Apply to all conflicts to take the same action for all the conflicts that occur while importing.

    If the file you are importing does not contain hyphenation exceptions for a particular language, then any existing hyphenation exceptions for that language will be erased.

Since Hyphenation Exceptions can be added at either at the application or layout level:

  • Importing hyphenation exceptions when no project is open would result in the hyphenation exceptions being imported at the application level for all the languages.

  • Importing hyphenation exceptions with a multi-layout project open would result in the hyphenation exceptions being imported into the current layout of the project.

Exporting hyphenation exeption files

Users can export hyphenation exceptions from QuarkXPress to an external .xml file. To export hyphenation exception files:

  1. Choose Utilities > Hyphenation Exceptions > Export. The New Hyphenation Exceptions File dialog box displays.

    The New Hyphenation Exceptions File dialog box
  2. Specify the location and the name for the .xml file.

  3. Click Save.

  • Exporting hyphenation exceptions when no project is open creates an external .xml file containing the hyphenation exceptions present in QuarkXPress at the application level for all the languages.

  • Exporting hyphenation exceptions with a multi-layout project open creates an external .xml file containing the hyphenation exceptions present in the current layout of the project.

Job Jackets with hyphenation exceptions

A new Hyphenation Exceptions resource has been added at the Job Jacket level. This feature allows users to share hyphenation exceptions among users who are creating projects from the same Job Jacket. A user can create many hyphenation exception resources at the job jacket level. These resources are not available at the Job Ticket level but can be referenced in the layout item.

To add a hyphenation exceptions files as a Job Jacket resource:

  1. Open the Job Jackets Manager dialog box (Utilities menu).

  2. In the list on the left, open or create a Job Jackets file. The Resource categories in the Job Jackets file are listed in alphabetical order in the list on the upper right.

  3. Select the desired target Job Jacket from the list on the left.

  4. Select Hyphenation Exceptions from the list of Resources in the top-right list.

    Existing hyphenation exception resources are listed in the bottom-right list.
  5. Click to add a hyphenation exception files as a resource. You can select this file to be the default hyphenation exception file. When there is no layout item at Job Ticket level, this will be the default hyphenation exception file applied to layouts defined in the Job Ticket.

  6. Browse to and select the desired .xml file.

    The Hyphenation Exceptions resource item has three attributes:

    • Source: specifies the type of repository available from where the external hyphenation exceptions file could be selected for reference. By default it is File.

    • Path: shows the URI of the external hyphenation exceptions file. It allows the user to select the external hyphenation exceptions file to be referred to this hyphenation exceptions resource item. Depending upon the type of Source selected, the user is asked to select the external hyphenation exceptions file by invoking the source browser.

    • Default: used to designate this resource item as the hyphenation exceptions file if a job ticket defined in the job jacket does not have a layout item defined in it. By default the value of this attribute is No. To make it default, change its value to Yes. Only one hyphenation exceptions resource item can be declared as the default.

Job Tickets and hyphenation exceptions

Hyphenation exceptions reside at the layout level and not the project level. To use this feature you must add layout items in the Job Ticket and associate one of the available hyphenation exception resource items.

Key points:

  • Hyphenation exceptions from an external hyphenation exceptions files associated with layout items on the job ticket get imported into the corresponding layout of the newly created project.

  • a user can create any number of layout items. Each layout created in the project would contain hyphenation exceptions present in external hyphenation exception file associated to the layout items.

  • If there are hyphenation exceptions present in the application, those hyphenation exceptions would not become part of the layouts if hyphenation exceptions are present in the layout items.

  • If hyphenation exceptions resource items are present in the Job Jacket, but no layout item and/or default hyphenation exception item has been defined then hyphenation exceptions present in the application would be included in the layouts.

  • If a user links/attaches a project (having no hyphenation exceptions) with the job jacket containing hyphenation exceptions, then hyphenation exceptions would get imported in the project's layout.

  • If a user links/attaches a project (already containing hyphenation exceptions) with the job jacket containing different hyphenation exceptions, then hyphenation exceptions in the project's layout would get replaced with the ones in the job jacket.

  • If a user makes any changes related to hyphenation exceptions resource items in the job jacket that is already linked with a project, then all the changes would get reflected only after relinking the project with the same Job Jacket.

To add hyphenation exceptions to Layout specifications:

  1. Open the Job Jackets Manager dialog box (Utilities > Job Jackets Manager) and select the target Job Jacket from the list on the left.

  2. Select the desired Job Ticket from the Job Jacket and either open that Job Ticket or create a new Job Ticket file. The resource categories in the Job Ticket file are listed in alphabetical order in the list on the upper right.

  3. Select Layouts from the list of resource types in the top-right list. Any layout definitions in the Job Ticket display in the bottom-right list.

  4. Select an existing layout from the list of layouts in the bottom-right list or click to create a new layout definition.

  5. Click the expander button next to the layout definition name to display the fields of the layout definition.

  6. Scroll down to Hyphenation Exception and select the hyphenation exception file to link to for the chosen layout.

    Existing hyphenation exception resources are listed in the bottom-right list.
Synchronization between hyphenation exception files and layouts

QuarkXPress supports synchronization between a layout and the hyphenation exception file when it is part of a Job Jacket resource.

If you have created a project from a Job Jacket, containing a hyphentation exception reference, then any changes performed in the hyphenation exception file will get reflected in the layout the next time the project is opened or re-linked to the job ticket. If you add/delete/modify any hyphenation exception in the layout, when you save the project the newly added hyphenation exceptions will be reflected in the hyphenation exceptions file.

Synchronization behavior:

  • Any modification in the external hyphenation exceptions file which is referenced in a Job Jacket will be reflected in the project's layout created from the same Job Jacket the next time the project is opened.

  • Any modicifation in the hyphenation exceptions from within QuarkXPress will be reflected in the referenced external hyphenation exceptions file when the user saves the project.

  • If the user has defined a hyphenation exception resource item as the Default, the synchronization feature works even when there is no layout item defined in the Job Ticket.

  • Synchronization does not work if any change related to hyphenation exceptions resource item is made in the Job Jacket that is already linked with a project. In order to get the changes reflected, user must relink the project with the same Job Jacket.

  • The synchronization feature works for all the languages.

Integrating with Quark Publishing Platform

To integrate a Job Jacket with an external hyphenation exceptions file checked into the Quark Publishing Platform server:

  1. Open the Job Jackets Manager dialog box (Utilities > Job Jackets Manager) and click the open Job Jacket button . Select Quark Publishing Platform from the dropdown.

    The dropdown menu under the open Job Jacket button is only displayed when QuarkXPress is launched with the Quark Publishing Platform XTension. Select File to open a local Job Jacket and Quark Publishing Platform to open a Job Jacket from the server

  2. Browse for the desired collection.

  3. Select the desired Job Jacket and click OK.

  4. Select Hyphenation Exceptions from the list of Resource types in the top-right list and click to add a hyphenation exception file as a resource.

  5. Click the Source attribute and select Quark Publishing Platform from the dropdown menu.

  6. Click the Browse button and select the desired hyphenation exceptions file and click OK.

Synchronization of hyphenation exceptions files on Platform

If you have created a project from a Job Jacket, containing a hyphentation exception reference, then any changes performed in the hyphenation exception file will get reflected in the layout the next time the project is opened or re-linked to the job ticket. If you add/delete/modify any hyphenation exception in the layout, when you save the project the newly added hyphenation exceptions will be reflected in the hyphenation exceptions file.

Synchronization behavior within the Quark Publishing Platform environment:

  • Any change made in the external hyphenation exceptions file which is checked in to server, will be reflected in the project's layout the next time the project is opened or checked out.

  • Any change made in the hyphenation exceptions from the QuarkXPress end will be reflected in the referenced external hyphenation exceptions file whenthe user performs a Save or Check In of the project. A new revision (major) of the referenced hyphenation exception asset will be silently created on the server.

Using discretionary hyphens

In addition to hyphenating text automatically, you can control line breaks and text flow by inserting manual, or discretionary, hyphens (Command+- [hyphen]/Ctrl+- [hyphen]). A discretionary hyphen is inserted only when a word is broken at the end of a line.

Controlling tracking

Tracking lets you adjust the space between selected characters and words for copyfitting and typographic effects. Tracking values are expressed as 1/200 of an em space. A positive tracking value increases the space to the right of each character; a negative value decreases it.

Tracking is commonly used for copyfitting. However, too much tracking can interfere with design and readability. When you are using tracking for copyfitting, consider these guidelines:

  • Track whole paragraphs rather than one line or one word.

  • Establish guidelines for tracking (for example from +3 to –3).

  • Make sure vertically adjacent paragraphs have similar tracking applied.

These are general rules; appropriate tracking values depend on the design, font, column width, and other factors.

Tracking manually

To apply tracking to selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Use the Track Amount controls in the Home or Character tab of Measurements palette.

  • Use the ticker controls with or without Shift or Alt/ Opt modifier to modify the tracking

  • Use one of the keyboard commands below.

Mac OS X
  • Decrease 1/20-em: Command+Shift+{

  • Increase 1/20-em: Command+Shift+}

  • Decrease 1/200-em: Command+Option+Shift+{

  • Increase 1/200-em: Command+Option+Shift+}

Windows
  • Decrease 1/20-em: Ctrl+Shift+{

  • Increase 1/20-em: Ctrl+Shift+}

  • Decrease 1/200-em: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+{

  • Increase 1/200-em: Ctrl+Alt+Shift+}

Editing tracking tables

The application uses tracking information that is built into the font (the font's tracking table). You can't change a font's tracking table, but you can create a custom tracking table for any font by using the Font Tracking Tables dialog box (Edit menu).

Sending

Sending lets you fix the distance between the left edges of successive character bounding boxes in horizontal text, or the top edges of successive character bounding boxes in vertical text. You can apply sending by selecting text and entering an explicit measurement (such as 2mm or 8q) in the Track Amount field in the Home or Character tab of the Measurements palette.

If you enter a number in a Track Amount field but do not specify a measurement unit, tracking is applied instead of sending. To apply sending, specify a measurement unit.

You can apply sending to characters that do not have Chinese, Japanese, and Korean language applied to them. Simply check the Apply Sending to Non-CJK Characters box in the Character tab of the Measurements palette.

Working with style sheets

A style sheet is a group of paragraph attributes, character attributes, or both that can be applied to selected paragraphs and characters in one step. Use style sheets to change unformatted text into styles such as headlines, subheadings, captions, or body copy. Using style sheets to apply a number of character and paragraph attributes at one time reduces layout time and helps maintain typographic consistency.

Creating and editing paragraph style sheets

A paragraph style sheet is a named package of paragraph and character attributes. You can apply all of a paragraph style sheet's formatting attributes to text by simply applying the style sheet to the text. To create, edit, duplicate, or delete paragraph style sheets, use the Style Sheets dialog box (Edit > Style Sheets).

Use the Style Sheets dialog box to create, edit, and delete style sheets.

To create a paragraph style sheet, choose Paragraph from the New drop-down button. The Edit Paragraph Style Sheet dialog box displays. Use the controls in this dialog box to configure the attributes of the style sheet.

Use the Edit Paragraph Style Sheet dialog box to configure a paragraph style sheet.

First, configure the controls in the General tab:

  • Name: Enter a name in this field, or the application will use a default "New Style Sheet" name.

  • Keyboard Equivalent: To define a keyboard command for the style sheet, enter one in the Keyboard Equivalent field. You can enter any combination of Command, Option, Shift, or Control/Ctrl or Ctrl+Alt, along with a function or keypad key.

  • If you define a keyboard equivalent for a style sheet with a key sequence that also defines an existing command, the style sheet command will override the existing command when the Text Content tool is selected and a text box is active.

  • If you define a keyboard equivalent for a style sheet with a key sequence that also defines an existing command, the style sheet command will override the existing command when a text component is active.

  • Based on: To base the attributes of a new style sheet on an existing one, click the Based on drop-down menu and choose a style sheet from the list. Note that if you use the Based on drop-down menu in the Edit Paragraph Style Sheet dialog box to base a style sheet on an existing one, changes you make to the original style sheet are automatically applied to those based on it.

  • Next Style: To select a transition from one paragraph style sheet to another after entering a carriage return, choose a paragraph style sheet from the Next Style drop-down menu.

  • Character Style: To associate a character style sheet with the paragraph style sheet, choose an option from the Character Style drop-down menu in the Character Attributes area. To create a character style sheet, see "Creating and Editing Character Style Sheets."

  • Heading Style: To specify the Heading Level to be assigned to text exported to tagged PDF, select the desired heading level here.

Next, use the Formats, Tabs, Rules and Column Flow tabs to specify additional attributes for your paragraph style sheet. When you're done, click OK to return to the Style Sheets dialog box, then click Save to save the style sheet. After you save a paragraph style sheet, it is listed in the Paragraph Style Sheet submenu (Style menu) and also in the Style Sheets palette.

When you create a style sheet with no projects open, that style sheet becomes part of the default style sheet list and is included in all subsequently created projects. When you create a style sheet with an project open, that style sheet is included only in the active project's style sheet list.

To create a paragraph style sheet based on formatted text, first place the text insertion point within a paragraph that uses the format attributes that you want in your paragraph style sheet. Choose Edit > Style Sheets to display the Style Sheets dialog box. Choose New > Paragraph and enter a name in the Name field. Click Save. Then apply the new style sheet to the paragraph.

Updating paragraph style sheets

When you place the cursor in a paragraph that has uniform local formatting applied, you can update the style sheet applied to that text to include the local formatting by clicking the Update button . Alternatively, you can choose Style > Update Style Sheet > Paragraph.

To update both the paragraph style sheet and the character style sheet applied to text so that they reflect local formatting, choose Style > Update Style Sheet > Both.

Creating and editing character style sheets

A character style sheet is a named package of character attributes. You can apply all of a character style sheet's formatting attributes to text by simply applying the style sheet to the text. To create, edit, or delete character style sheets, use the Style Sheets dialog box (Edit > Style Sheets).

To create a character style sheet, choose Character from the New drop-down button. The Edit Character Style Sheet dialog box displays. Use the controls in this dialog box to configure the attributes of the style sheet.

Use the Edit Character Style Sheet dialog box to configure a character style sheet.

First, configure the controls in the General tab:

  • Name: Enter a name in this field, or the application will use the default "New Style Sheet" name.

  • Keyboard Equivalent: To define a keyboard command for the style sheet, enter one in the Keyboard Equivalent field. You can enter any combination of Command, Option, Shift, or Control/Ctrl or Ctrl+Alt, along with a function or keypad key.

  • Based On: To base the attributes of a new style sheet on an existing one, choose a style sheet from the Based On drop-down menu.

Next, choose character attributes from the lower section of the Edit Character Style Sheet dialog box. When you're done, click OK to return to the Style Sheets dialog box, then click Save to save the style sheet. After you save a character style sheet, it is listed in the Character Style Sheet submenu (Style menu) and also in the Style Sheets palette.

Updating character style sheets

When you select text that has uniform local formatting applied, you can update the style sheet applied to that text to include the local formatting by clicking the Update button . Alternatively, you can choose Style > Update Style Sheet > Character.

To update both the paragraph style sheet and the character style sheet applied to text so that they reflect local formatting, choose Style > Update Style Sheet > Both.

Applying style sheets

To apply a style sheet to selected text, do one of the following things:

  • Choose the style sheet name from the Style > Paragraph Style Sheet submenu or the Style > Character Style Sheet submenu.

  • Display the Style Sheets palette (Window menu) and then click the style sheet name in the palette.

  • Use the keyboard command (if any) displayed next to the style sheet name in the Style Sheets palette.

In addition, the Style Sheets palette menu and the context menu for style sheets provide the following options:

  • Apply Style Sheet & Retain Local Type Styles: Applies the selected style sheet, leaving only local type styles (such as bold and italic) intact.

  • Apply Style Sheet & Retain Local Type Styles & OpenType Styles: Applies the selected style sheet, leaving both local type styles (such as bold and italic) and OpenType styles intact.

  • Apply Style Sheet & Remove Local Formatting: Applies the selected style sheet and removes all local formatting. Equivalent to Option/Alt-clicking the style sheet name.

  • Apply Style Sheet & Remove Local Paragraph Formatting: Applies the selected style sheet and removes only local paragraph formatting. All local character formatting is left intact.

  • Apply Style Sheet & Maintain Appearance: Applies the selected style sheet, plus any local formatting necessary to maintain the paragraph's current appearance.

If you use one of the following commands, QuarkXPress applies the indicated paragraph style sheet to the selected text, then if that style sheet has a specified Next Style, applies that style to the following paragraph. This process continues until QuarkXPress encounters a paragraph that does not have a specified Next Style. The options for this feature are as follows:

  • Apply Using Next Style: Applies style sheets using Next Style.

  • Apply Using Next Style & Retain Local Type Styles: Applies style sheets using Next Style, leaving local type styles (such as bold and italic) intact.

  • Apply Using Next Style & Retain Local Type Styles & OpenType Styles: Applies style sheets using Next Style, leaving both local type styles (such as bold and italic) and OpenType styles intact.

  • Apply Using Next Style & Remove Local Formatting: Applies style sheets using Next Style, plus any local formatting necessary to maintain each paragraph's current appearance.

When local paragraph or character attributes exist in selected text, a plus sign displays next to the style sheet name in the Style Sheets palette. To remove local attributes, click No Style and then reselect the style sheet, or Option+click/Alt+click the style sheet name.

Appending style sheets

To import paragraph and character style sheets from a different article or project, choose File > Append, navigate to the target article or project file, then display the Style Sheets pane and import the style sheets you want.

If a style sheet from the source file has the same name as a style sheet in the target project, but is defined differently, the Append Conflict dialog box displays. You can use this dialog box to determine how such conflicts are handled.

Working with conditional styles

Conditional styles let you automatically apply formatting to text based on the content of that text. For example, consider the text-formatting conventions shown in the following image:

Text that can be formatted with conditional styles

The conventions used here could be described like so:

  1. Apply the Headline paragraph style sheet to the first paragraph.

  2. Apply the Bold Body character style sheet to the first sentence of the second paragraph.

  3. Apply the Body paragraph style sheet until you get to the end of the story.

  4. When you get to the end, turn around and apply the Byline character style sheet backwards until you get to an em dash.

Each step is executed only after the previous step executes, and at the point in the text where the previous step leaves off. If any step fails, the rest of the steps are not executed.

The Conditional Styles feature lets you capture such instructions and apply them automatically to text. For example, you could implement the above conventions with the following conditional style:

A conditional style that produces the above formatting

Once you've captured these rules in a conditional style, you can style a run of text by simply selecting it and then clicking the conditional style's name in the Conditional Styles palette.

Conditional Styles palette

It is important to understand that conditional styles are applied at the paragraph level. Each paragraph can have only one conditional style applied to it. If a paragraph does not have a conditional style applied to it, it cannot be reformatted by a conditional style that is applied to a different paragraph.

It is also important to understand that when you apply a conditional style to a sequence of paragraphs, that conditional style affects only that series of paragraphs. If a conditional style is applied to a series of paragraphs at the beginning of a story and to a series of paragraphs at the end of the same story, they cannot affect one another, even if (for example) the series at the beginning of the story includes a rule with an End of the Story reference.

Creating a conditional style

To create a conditional style:

  1. Choose Edit > Conditional Styles. The Conditional Styles dialog box displays.

  2. Click New. The Edit Conditional Style dialog box displays.

    Edit Conditional Style dialog box
  3. Enter a name for the conditional style in the Name field.

  4. To begin building a rule, choose an option in the first column:

    • Apply: Use this option to apply formatting to text.

    • Go: Use this option to move to a different point in the text. The rule after a Go rule is applied beginning at the point where the Go rule stops.

    The option you choose in the first column determines which options are available in the other columns.

  5. If you chose Apply in the first column, choose the paragraph or character style sheet you want to apply in the second column.

  6. Use the next three columns to indicate which text to style or jump over. Start with the third column:

    • Up To: Moves forward and stops immediately before the indicated point.

    • Through: Moves forward and stops immediately after the indicated point.

    • Backwards To: Moves backward and stops immediately before the indicated point.

    • Backwards Through: Moves backward and stops immediately after the indicated point.

    The option selected in the fifth column controls whether all of these options are available in this column.

  7. In the fourth column, indicate how many occurrences of the option in the fifth column to apply to or through.

  8. In the fifth column, choose which entity to jump or format to or through:

    • Cursor Position: Choose this option to apply a paragraph style sheet to the current location without moving.

    • Conditional Style Marker: Choose this option to jump or format to the next conditional style marker. For more information, see "Conditional style markers."

    • Character: Choose this option to target a particular character, then enter the character in the next column. If you want to move to or through one of several characters, enter all of them with no characters between them. For example, if you enter "abc" here, the application will stop for "a", "b", or "c".

    • Number: Choose this option to jump or format to or through the next occurrence of a number.

    • Text: Choose this option to target a particular chunk of text, then enter the target text in the next column.

    • Number of Characters: Choose this option to format a particular number of characters.

    • Number of Words: Choose this option to format a particular number of words.

    • Beginning of the Sentence: Choose this option to format backwards to the beginning of the current sentence.

    • End of the Sentence: Choose this option to format through the end of the current sentence.

    • Beginning of the Paragraph: Choose this option to jump or format backwards to the beginning of the current paragraph.

    • End of the Paragraph: Choose this option to jump or format through the end of the current paragraph.

    • Next Paragraph: Choose this option to jump to or through the next paragraph.

    • Last Paragraph: Choose this option to jump to or through the final paragraph.

    • Number of Sentences: Choose this option to format a particular number of sentences.

    • End of the Story: Choose this option to jump or format through the end of the story.

    • Beginning of the Story: Choose this option to jump or format backwards to the beginning of the story.

    When you use text as part of a conditional style, you can also use special characters (see "Special character codes")

  9. To add a rule, click the + button at the end of the first row. (To delete a rule, click the - button.)

  10. To make the rules repeat, check Repeat Conditional Style At and choose an option:

    • Text: Choose this option to repeat when a particular chunk of text is found, then enter the target text in the field.

    • Character: Choose this option to repeat when a particular character is found, then enter the character in the next column. If you want to repeat at each instance of one of several characters, enter all of them with no characters between them. For example, if you enter "abc" here, the application will repeat when "a", "b", or "c" is encountered.

    • Conditional Style Marker: Choose this option to repeat when a conditional style marker is found.

    • Every Paragraph: Choose this option to repeat at the beginning of every paragraph.

  11. Click OK.

You can also create a conditional style by clicking New in the Conditional Styles palette. You can duplicate a conditional style by clicking Duplicate in the Conditional Styles palette.

Applying a conditional style

To apply a conditional style:

  1. Display the Conditional Styles palette (Window menu).

    Conditional Styles palette
  2. Select the Text Content tool and select the target paragraphs or place the text cursor where you want the conditional styling to begin.

  3. Click the name of the conditional style in the Conditional Styles palette.

Note that once you have applied a conditional style to text, that text will continue to be automatically formatted until you remove the conditional style. To remove a conditional style from a paragraph, select the paragraph or place the text insertion point in the paragraph, then click No Conditional Style in the Conditional Styles palette.

Removing conditional styles

There are two ways to remove conditional styles from text to which they have been applied:

  • To remove the conditional styles from the selected paragraphs and revert the text to its underlying paragraph style sheets, choose Revert Selected Text to Base Styles from the Conditional Styles palette menu.

  • To remove the conditional styles from the selected paragraphs and leave the styling applied by the conditional styles in place, click No Conditional Style in the Conditional Styles palette or choose Resolve Conditional Styles on Selected Text from the Conditional Styles palette menu.

Using conditional style markers

If there is no natural aspect of a text flow (such as a particular character or the end of a sentence) where you can stop or start the application of a conditional style, you can insert a zero-width character called a conditional style marker. For example, assume you have a plain text file that contains a series of multi-paragraph articles, each with a one-paragraph headline. You can still use conditional styles to format them, like so:

  1. Insert a conditional style marker at the beginning of each headline. To insert a conditional style marker, choose Utilities > Insert Character > Special > Conditional Style Marker.

    Plain text with conditional style markers (highlighted in yellow)
  2. Create a conditional style that applies the Headline paragraph style sheet to the first paragraph and the Body style sheet until the next occurrence of a conditional style marker. At the bottom of the Edit Conditional Style dialog box, check Repeat Conditional Style At and select Conditional Style Marker.

    Conditional style that uses conditional style markers
  3. Apply the conditional style to the text. Each article is automatically formatted.

    Text with conditional style applied

Editing a conditional style

There are two ways to edit a conditional style:

  • Choose Edit > Conditional Styles, select the conditional style, and then click Edit.

  • Select the conditional style in the Conditional Styles palette and click Edit .

To delete a conditional style, use the Delete button in the Conditional Styles dialog box or select the conditional style in the Conditional Styles palette and click Delete .

Bullets and numbering

Rather than using manually created and formatted bullets and numbers, you can create bulleted and numbered lists with bullet styles, numbering styles, and outline styles.

A bullet style describes how a bullet should look, how far it should be from the text, and how it should be aligned.

A numbering style describes how a number should look, what format it should have, how far it should be from the text, and how it should be aligned.

An outline style defines indents for up to nine indent levels. You can associate a bullet or numbering style with each level. You can also choose whether to include the numbers from previous levels, as you would in some types of outline.

To apply a bullet, numbering, or outline style, use the •/123 drop-down menu on the right side of the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette. If you've applied an outline style, the Decrease Indent and Increase Indent buttons let you increase and decrease a paragraph's indent level.

•/123 drop-down menu and indent buttons

In addition to the settings in bullet, numbering, and outline styles, there is a paragraph attribute called Minimum Bullet/Number Distance from Text, on the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

This value lets you handle situations where a left-aligned or center-aligned number is pushing into the paragraph.

To increase and decrease the indent level of a paragraph, use the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

Working with bullet styles

A bullet style describes how a bullet should look, how far it should be from the text, and how it should be aligned.

To create a bullet style, choose Edit > Bullet, Numbering, and Outline Styles, then choose Bullet Style from the New button in the Bullet, Numbering, and Outline Styles dialog box. The Edit Bullet Style dialog box displays.

Edit Bullet Style dialog box

To control how the bullet is styled, choose an option from the Character Style drop-down menu. Choose Inherit from Paragraph to use the paragraph's character formatting for the bullet, or choose a character style sheet to use that character style sheet's formatting.

Enter the actual bullet character or characters in the Bullet Characters field.

If you are inheriting the bullet's formatting from the paragraph, you can change the size of the bullet character or characters using the Size field.

The Outset value controls how far the bullet is from the paragraph. You can specify this distance in Absolute units, or click Relative (in Ems) and specify the value in em spaces. The Relative (in Ems) option may be preferable when you will be using the bullet style with different-sized text.

Bullet outset

Alignment controls how the bullet aligns to the outset point.

Left-aligned, center-aligned, and right-aligned bullets

You can apply a bullet style in three ways:

  • By choosing the bullet style's name from the •/123 menu in the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette. If you do it this way, the bullet is positioned to the left of the paragraph's first line indent by its Outset value.

  • By choosing an outline style that uses the bullet style from the •/123 menu in the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette. If you do it this way, the bullet's position is controlled by the outline style. For more information, see "Working with outline styles."

  • Associate the bullet style with a paragraph style sheet, then apply that style sheet to the text. For more information, see "Bullets, numbering, outlines, and style sheets."

Working with numbering styles

A numbering style describes how a number should look, what format it should have, how far it should be from the text, and how it should be aligned.

To create a numbering style, choose Edit > Bullet, Numbering, and Outline Styles, then choose Numbering Style from the New button in the Bullet, Numbering, and Outline Styles dialog box. The Edit Numbering Style dialog box displays.

Edit Numbering Style dialog box

To control how the numbers are styled, choose an option from the Character Style drop-down menu. Choose Inherit from Paragraph to use the paragraph's character formatting for the numbers, or choose a character style sheet to use that character style sheet's formatting.

Choose a number format from the Format drop-down menu.

If you want prefix or suffix characters around the number, enter them in the Prefix and Suffix fields.

If you are inheriting the numbers' formatting from the paragraph, you can change the size of the numbers using the Size field.

The Outset value controls how far each number is from the paragraph. You can specify this distance in Absolute units, or click Relative (in Ems) and specify the value in em spaces. The Relative (in Ems) option may be preferable when you will be using the numbering style with different-sized text.

Numbering alignment and offset works the same way bullet alignment and offset works. For more information, see "Working with bullet styles."

You can apply a numbering style in three ways:

  • Choose the numbering style's name from the •/123 menu in the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette. If you do it this way, the numbers are positioned to the left of the paragraph's first line indent by its Outset value.

  • Choose an outline style that uses the numbering style from the •/123 menu in the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette. If you do it this way, the numbers' positions are controlled by the outline style. For more information, see "Working with outline styles."

  • Associate the numbering style with a paragraph style sheet, then apply that style sheet to the text. For more information, see "Bullets, numbering, outlines, and style sheets."

To change the starting number of a paragraph, use the Bullets and Numbers tab of the Measurements palette, check Restart Numbering, and enter a starting number in the Start At field

Working with outline styles

An outline style defines indents for up to nine indent levels. You can associate a bullet or numbering style with each level. You can also choose whether to include the numbers from previous levels, as you would in some types of outline.

To create an outline style, choose Edit > Bullet, Numbering, and Outline Styles, then choose Outline Style from the New button in the Bullet, Numbering, and Outline Styles dialog box. The Edit Outline Style dialog box displays.

Edit Outline Style dialog box

Each outline style has nine levels, although you do not have to use all nine. Each level has an indent, which you can specify in the Indent field for that level. Indents are applied cumulatively; if level 1 has a 6 pt indent and level 2 has a 6 pt indent, a paragraph at level 2 is indented by 12 pt.

Outline style indents are applied on top of paragraph indents. If a paragraph has a left indent of 12 pt, and the indent for an outline style's first level is 6 pt, a paragraph at level 1 would visually be indented by 18 pt.

Each level can have a bullet or numbering style, or neither. To assign a bullet or numbering style to a level, choose an option in the Bullet or Numbering Style column for that level.

This diagram illustrates the relationship between level indents and bullet outsets. Numbering outsets work the same way.

The Include Lower Levels/Separator column lets you choose to append the numbers from lower levels to the beginning of a number, and to specify how the numbers from the various levels are separated. For example, if you check this box for level 3 and specify a period as the separator, the numbering for level-3 text might look like this:

1.3.1 This paragraph is at level 3.

1.3.2 This paragraph is at level 3.

1.3.3 This paragraph is at level 3.

To change the character inserted between levels for a given level, double-click to the right of the Include Lower Levels/Separator check box and enter a new character or characters.

When you include numbers from lower levels and use left or center number alignment, there is a chance the numbers can extend to be longer than the number outset and potentially overlap the text. To address this possibility:

The Minimum Bullet/Number Distance from Text paragraph attribute can be found on the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette. If a number's length becomes longer than the number outset, the application moves the paragraph text to the right so that there is always this much distance between the number and the text.

How the Minimum Bullet/Number Distance from Text value is applied

Check the Include Trailing Zero option to include trailing zeros at the end of the number. For example, if you check this box and your outline has three levels, the numbering would look like this:

1.0.0 This paragraph is at level 1 of a 3 level outline.

1.1.0 This paragraph is at level 2 of a 3 level outline.

1.1.1 This paragraph is at level 3 of a 3 level outline.

Outline styles applied to subsequent levels are retained even when a different outline style is applied at the parent level.

There are two ways to apply an outline style to text:

  • Choose the outline style's name from the •/123 menu in the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

  • Associate the outline style with a paragraph style sheet, then apply that style sheet to the text. For more information, see "Bullets, numbering, outlines, and style sheets."

Bullets, numbering, outlines, and style sheets

To associate a bullet, numbering, or outline style with a paragraph style sheet:

  1. Display the Formats tab of the Edit Paragraph Style Sheet dialog box (Edit > Style Sheets > New or Edit).

  2. Choose a bullet, numbering, or outline style from the •/123 drop-down menu.

    Associating a bullet, numbering, or outline style with a paragraph style sheet

When you apply this style sheet to a paragraph, the bullet, numbering, or outline style will also be applied.

Positioning text in text boxes

The topics below cover several ways to control the vertical and horizontal positioning of text in text boxes.

Using baseline grid

QuarkXPress versions 7.0 and earlier included a feature called Baseline Grid. The baseline grid was an evenly spaced series of invisible horizontal lines running from the top to the bottom of each page. Locking paragraphs to the baseline grid let you align baselines from column to column and from box to box, across a page and across spreads.

Since QuarkXPress 8.0, the Baseline Grid feature has been replaced by the Design Grid feature. For more information, see "Working with design grids."

Aligning text vertically

There are four options for positioning lines of text vertically within text boxes:

  • Top: In top-aligned text boxes, lines of text are positioned in the box with the top of the first line positioned as specified in the First Baseline area.

  • Centered: In center-aligned text boxes, lines of text are centered between the First Baseline's ascent and the bottom of the text box.

  • Bottom: In bottom-aligned text boxes, lines of text are positioned with the last line flush with the bottom of the box.

  • Justified: In justified text boxes, lines of text are positioned in the box with the first line positioned as specified in the First Baseline area, the last line flush with text inset at the bottom of the box, and the remaining lines justified between. When vertically justifying text, you can specify the maximum vertical distance between paragraphs.

To use these options, choose an Vertical Alignment option from the Text Box tab of the Measurements palette.

The Inter ¶ Max field (available only when Justified is selected in the Type drop-down menu) lets you specify the amount of space that can be inserted between vertically justified paragraphs.

The Centered, Bottom, and Justified alignment options are intended only for rectangular text areas, and can be disrupted by obstructing items.

Specifying text inset

Text inset lets you specify the distance that characters are inset from the inside edge of a text box. To specify the text inset for an active text box, use the Text Inset option in the Text Box tab of the Measurement palette.

To specify the same inset for all four sides, leave Multiple Insets unchecked and then enter a number in the All Edges field. To specify different insets for the four sides, check Multiple Insets and then enter numbers in the Top, Left, Bottom, and Right fields.

Specifying story direction

You can position text so that it runs left-to-right and top-to-bottom or top-to-bottom and right-to-left. To specify a story direction, choose Style > Story Direction, and then choose Horizontal or Vertical.

Controlling font usage

To view and replace fonts, display the Fonts pane of the Usage dialog box (Utilities menu). This pane lists all fonts used in the active project. To replace every occurrence of a font, select the font name, click Replace, and choose a replacement font.

If a font is listed in the Fonts tab (Utilities > Usage) as [Name of Font] preceded by a negative number, the system you are using does not have that font installed. When this occurs, you can install the necessary font and reopen the document, or you can use the Usage command to locate occurrences of the font and apply a different font.

Converting text to boxes

To convert the selected character or characters into a Bézier box, choose an option from the Item > Text to Box submenu.

To convert selected text to unanchored Bézier boxes, choose Item > Convert Text to Boxes > Unanchored.

To convert selected text to anchored Bézier boxes, choose Item > Convert Text to Boxes > Anchored.

To convert the entire contents of a text box or multiple text boxes to unanchored Bézier boxes, choose Item > Convert Text to Boxes > Convert Entire Box.

For more information, see "Understanding Bézier shapes" and "Using anchored boxes."

In versions 8 and later of QuarkXPress, you can convert more than one line of text at a time to boxes.

Using text runaround

The text runaround feature lets you control the way text runs behind, around, or within items and pictures. You can specify text to run around the actual item, or you can create custom runaround paths and then manually modify them.

The text runaround feature lets you control the way text runs behind, around, or within pictures. You can specify text to run around the actual picture, or you can create custom runaround paths and then manually modify them.

Runaround is a great way to make a page visually distinctive.

Running text around all sides of an item

To run text around all sides of an item, select a text box with either the Text Content tool or the Item tool , and then in the Text Box tab of the Measurements palette check Run Text Around All Sides option.

The Run Text Around All Sides preference is set by default.

Whether text runs around three sides or all sides of an item is determined by the text box, and not by the items that obstruct the text. This is the only runaround control that acts on the text box itself. All other runaround controls act on the item(s) placed in front of the text box.

Running text around lines and text paths

To apply text runaround to a line or text path in front of a text box, select the line or text path, use the Runaround tab on the Measurements palette, and then choose an option from the Type drop-down menu:

  • Choose None to run text behind the line or text path.

  • Choose Item to run text around the line or text path. You can specify the distance text maintains from the top, bottom, left, and right edges of the selected item. If the selected item is a text path, other text will only run around the path, not the text on the path.

  • Choose Manual to create an editable runaround path. You can specify a new path's distance from text, and then you can modify that path by choosing the appropriate field from the Runaround tab of the Measurements palette. For information about modifying a runaround path, see "Fine-tuning a runaround path" and "Editing a runaround path."

Running text around text boxes

To apply text runaround to a text box in front of another text box, select the front text box, and then:

Use the Runaround tab of the Measurements palette and choose an option from the Type drop-down menu

  • Choose None to run text behind an active text box.

  • Choose Item to run text around an active text box. If the text box is rectangular, enter values in the Top, Left, Bottom, and Right fields to outset or inset the runaround area. If the text box is not rectangular, a single Outset field is provided. 

Running text around pictures

Image editing applications can embed paths and alpha channels in an image. A path is a smooth Bézier shape, whereas an alpha channel is usually a grayscale image. Both paths and alpha channels are typically used to determine which parts of an image should be shown and which parts should be hidden or transparent.

If you import a picture that has an embedded path or alpha channel, you can use that path or alpha channel to control the way text runs around that picture. More specifically: The application can scan a path or channels and create a text runaround path based on the information.

To apply text runaround to a picture box in front of a text box, select the picture box, use the Runaround tab of the Measurements palette and choose an option from the Type drop-down menu:

To apply text runaround to a picture component in front of a text box, select the picture component, choose Style > Picture, click the Runaround tab, and then choose an option from the Type drop-down menu:

  • Choose None to run text behind the active picture component.

  • Choose Item to run text around the picture component's boundaries. If the picture component is rectangular, enter values in the Top, Left, Bottom, and Right fields to outset or inset the runaround area. If the picture component is not rectangular, a single Outset field is provided.

  • Choose Auto Image to create a Bézier clipping and runaround path based on the picture's non-white areas.

  • Choose Embedded Path to run text around a path embedded in an image by an image-editing application.

  • Choose Alpha Channel to run text around an alpha channel embedded in an image by an image-editing application.

  • Choose Non-White Areas to create a runaround path based on the picture's subject. Depending on the value in the Threshold field, the runaround path will outline a dark figure within a larger white or near-white background (or vice versa).

  • Choose Same As Clipping to set the text runaround path to the clipping path selected in the Clipping tab.

  • Choose Picture Bounds to run text around the rectangular "canvas area" of the imported picture file. This includes any white background areas saved with your original picture file. Enter values in the Top, Left, Bottom, and Right fields to determine the outset or inset of the text from the picture's boundaries.

To apply text runaround to a picture box in front of a text box, select the picture box, use the Runaround tab of the Measurements palette.

Fine-tuning a runaround path

When you choose Auto Image, Embedded Path, Alpha Channel, Non-White Areas, or Same As Clipping from the Type drop-down menu  in the Runaround tab of the Measurements palette, the following fields let you manipulate the runaround path:

  1. Outset changes the size of the runaround path. Positive values result in a runaround path that is further from the original setting, negative values decrease the amount of image included in the runaround path.

  2. Noise lets you specify the smallest allowable closed path. Any closed path smaller than the noise value is ignored. Noise values are useful for cleaning up runaround paths and making them easier to output.

  3. Smoothness lets you control path accuracy. A lower value creates a more complex path with a greater number of points. A higher value creates a less accurate path.

  4. Threshold determines how "white" is defined. All pixels defined as "white" are excluded. For example, if the Threshold value is 20%, and a pixel's gray value is below or at 20%, the pixel will be considered "white" and excluded from the runaround path.

Editing a runaround path

To adjust a runaround path, check Runaround (Item > Edit). The runaround path displays as a magenta outline. You can then edit the path as you would any Bézier object.

You can also change the types of the runaround path's points and segments with the controls in the Measurements palette. To change a point from one type to another, use one of the following three buttons:

  • Symmetrical Point : A symmetrical point connects two curved lines to form a continuous curve. The result is similar to a smooth point, but the curve handles always rest on a straight line through the point and are always equidistant from the point.

  • Smooth Point : A smooth point connects two curved lines to form a continuous curve. The curve handles always rest on a straight line through the point, but they can be distanced independently.

  • Corner Point : A corner point connects two straight lines, a straight line and a curved line, or two noncontinuous curved lines. With curved lines, the corner point's curve handles can be manipulated independently, usually to form a sharp transition between the two segments.

To change the character of a line segment, use one of the following buttons:

  • Straight Segment : Makes the active segment straight.

  • Curved Segment : Makes the active segment curved.

You can also change point and segment types with the Style > Point/Segment Type submenu.

Working with text paths

A text path is a line that you can add text to. You can manipulate the way text rides the path, the attributes of the text (such as font, color, and size), and the shape and style attributes of the path.

To add text to a line or path, select the Text Content tool and double-click the line or path.

To control the way text rides the selected text path, use the Text Box tab of the Measurements palette. Choose an option from the Text Orientation area to choose how the text should ride the path. You can also choose an option from the Align Text drop-down menu to determine which part of a font is used to position characters on the path. You can choose an option from Align with Line to determine how you wish to align the text with respect to the path. You can choose to Flip the Text.

Creating drop caps

Drop caps are initial caps that hang two or more lines below the first line of a paragraph. The automatic Drop Caps feature enlarges the drop cap characters and runs the paragraph around the drop caps automatically. The typeface and styles match the rest of the paragraph.

To apply drop caps to a selected paragraph, use the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette, and check Drop Caps. To specify how many characters to use as drop caps, enter a value from 1 to 127 in the Character Count field. To specify the number of lines the characters are dropped, enter a value from 2 to 16 in the Line Count field.

Drop caps are a great way to make text visually distinctive.

Drop caps are measured by percentage rather than by points. When you select a drop cap, the default size is 100%.

Creating rules above and below paragraphs

Rules are frequently used above or below text to set off paragraphs, to indicate related information, or just to add a graphic flair to page design. To create rules, use the Rules tab of the Measurements palette.

Using anchored boxes

You can paste boxes and lines of any shape in text, which makes them act like characters and flow with text. This is especially helpful when text reflows, because anchored items reflow like other characters in the text. If items are not anchored and text reflows, they become displaced, and can end up overlapping text.

Anchored objects (boxes, lines and tables) can be nested as deep as you like with no limit.

You can paste boxes and lines of any shape in text, which makes them act like characters and flow with text. This is especially helpful when text reflows, because anchored items reflow like other characters in the text. If items are not anchored and text reflows, they become displaced, and can end up overlapping text.

Anchoring boxes and lines in text

When you anchor an item, it behaves like a character flowing in text. To anchor an item:

  1. Select the Item tool , then select the item you want to anchor.

  2. Choose Edit > Cut or Edit > Copy.

  3. Select the Text Content tool and place the Text Insertion bar where you want to anchor the item.

  4. Choose Edit > Paste to anchor the item at the text insertion point.

Cutting, copying, pasting, and deleting anchored boxes and lines

To cut or copy an anchored item, select the item as you would any text character and choose Edit > Cut or Edit > Copy. To paste the anchored item elsewhere, place the Text Insertion bar in a different location and choose Edit > Paste. To delete an anchored item, select the item or insert the Text Insertion bar after it, and press Delete/Backspace.

External anchors

If you want to anchor objects that should remain outside the boundaries of a text box or are wider than the text box you are trying to anchor it in, then use the Callout functionality.

Working with OpenType Styles

OpenType is a cross-platform font format developed by Adobe and Microsoft that accommodates large character sets and glyphs, often including fractions, discretionary ligatures, old-style numerals, and more.  

In QuarkXPress 2018, the UI for the OpenType Styles feature has been greatly improved, making it much more user friendly. 

Click the OpenType icon   on the Home tab/ Character tab of the Measurements palette to display the OpenType Styles palette.

OpenType Styles palette
The OpenType Styles palette can also be displayed/closed by pressing the F4 shortcut key.
A radio button indicates that the OpenType feature is mutually exclusive, you need to select between one of the features. A check box indicates that the OpenType feature is additive, you can add the feature to the already applied OpenType features.

On macOS only the features available to the currently selected font are shown by default. If the currently selected font doesn't contain any OpenType features, a No OpenType features available message will be displayed on the palette. Checking the Show All OpenType Features button will display all of the OpenType features.

On Windows, all of the OpenType features available in QuarkXpress are automatically displayed, even if they do not apply to the currently selected font. OpenType features that are not applicable to the currently selected font will be greyed out. 

On macOS, the OpenType Styles palette can be resized vertically.

In the palette, a preview of each feature will be shown to the right of the feature, displaying how the currently selected text will be rendered if that particular feature were to be applied.

The following new features for OpenType Styles have been introduced:

  • Slashed Zero

  • Ornaments

  • Stylistic Alternates

  • Historical Forms

  • Small Capitals From Capitals

  • Case Sensitive Forms

  • Capital Spacing

Applying OpenType styles

OpenType styles can be applied through the OpenType Styles dialog in the Edit Character Style Sheet dialog.  

Click the OpenType icon on the Edit Character Style Sheet dialog to displays the OpenType Styles dialog. 

OpenType styles available in the Edit Character Style Sheet dialog

If a font has OpenType features available, then the UI label for the corresponding OpenType feature will appear enabled in the OpenType dialog, otherwise the UI label will appear grayed out. The check box for the OpenType features are independent of the availability of the OpenType feature in the applied font. This allows the user to set the OpenType attributes during style sheet creation or modification. 

Click Reset to Default to reset your choices to the default choices applied to the style sheet.

OpenType styles include the following:

  • Standard Ligatures: Apply ligatures that are designed to enhance readability and are in standard use.

  • Discretionary Ligatures: Apply ligatures that are not in standard use. This feature covers the ligatures that may be used for special effect at the user's preference.

  • Tabular Figures: Apply equal widths to numbers.

  • Proportional Figures: Apply unequal widths to numbers.

  • Small Caps: Apply small capital letters to lowercase text.

  • All Small Caps: Apply small capital letters to all upper case, title case and lower case text.

  • Lining Figures: Apply modern numeric styles that align better with text that is in all capital letters.

  • Oldstyle Figures: Apply numeric styles that are best suited for numbers that are integrated into text.

  • Italics: Apply italic glyphs.

  • Fractions: Apply slashed fraction glyphs.

  • Swashes: Apply calligraphic glyphs.

  • Ordinals: Apply ordinal number glyphs.

  • Titling Alternates: Apply capital letter glyphs designed for titles at larger point sizes.

  • Contextual Alternates: Apply alternate glyph variations based on contextual juxtapositions of text.

  • Localized Forms: Replace default forms of glyphs with localized forms. This feature is dependent on the text language of the base text.

  • H\V Kana Alternates: Apply specially designed horizontal or vertical Kana forms that correspond with the story direction (vertical or horizontal).

  • Position: Apply superscript, subscript, scientific inferior, numerator, and denominator glyphs to selected text.

  • Alternate Metrics: Apply alternate widths or heights based on story direction (vertical or horizontal).

  • Alternate Vertical Half Metrics: Fit glyphs to individual, proportional heights.

  • Alternate Vertical Metrics: Center glyphs inside a full-em height.

  • Proportional Alternate Metrics: Fit glyphs to individual, proportional widths.

  • Full Widths: Replace glyphs set on other em widths with glyphs set on full-em widths.

  • Half Widths: Replace full-em width glyphs with half-em width glyphs.

  • Third Widths: Replace glyphs set on other em widths with glyphs set on third-em widths.

  • Quarter Widths: Replace glyphs set on other em widths with glyphs set on quarter-em widths.

  • Proportional Alternate Widths: Fit glyphs to individual, proportional widths.

  • Alternate Forms: Apply alternate glyph forms, such as JIS2004, JIS78, JIS90, Simplified, and Traditional. These glyph forms are specially designed for some Japanese OpenType fonts.

  • Slashed Zero : This feature allows the user to change from the default 0 to a slashed form.

  • Ornaments: This feature allows the user to ornament glyphs in the font. 

  • Stylistic Alternates: This feature replaces the default forms with the stylistic alternates.

  • Historical Forms: This feature replaces the default forms with the historical alternates.

  • Small Capitals From Capitals: This feature turns capital characters into small capitals.

  • Case Sensitive Forms: This feature shifts various punctuation marks up to a position that works better with all-capital sequences or sets of lining figures; also changes oldstyle figures to lining figures.

  • Capital Spacing: This feature allows the user to adjusts inter-glyph spacing for all-capital text.

  • Stylistic Sets: This feature replaces the default forms with the stylistic set variants.

Use the Find/Change dialog to search/replace text that has specified OpenType features applied; or search/replace OpenType features.

Using ligatures

There are two methods for using ligatures: The legacy method or the OpenType method. The legacy method supports standard ligatures such as fi and fl in PostScript fonts. The OpenType method allows access to both standard ligatures and discretionary ligatures in OpenType fonts. Both methods are applied as character attributes, meaning that you can apply them to any selected text.

  • To apply ligatures to selected text using the legacy method, check Ligatures on the Character tab of the Measurements palette .

  • To apply ligatures to selected text using the OpenType method, select text that uses an OpenType and then choose Standard Ligatures from the OpenType menu on the Home or Charactertab of the Measurements palette . This will apply ligatures such as fi, fl, ff, ffi, ffl, fj, ffj, and th — if they are built into the font. In addition, you can choose Discretionary Ligatures to apply rare ligatures such as ct, sp, st, and fh. If either ligature option displays in brackets, the OpenType font in use does not support those ligature features. On Windows, you can also check Standard Ligatures and Discretionary Ligatures in the OpenType area of the Character Attributes dialog box.

Ligature preferences

You can set preferences for ligatures in the Character pane of the Preferences dialog box (QuarkXPress/Edit > Preferences > Print Layout > Character):

  • Break Above: The value in the field specifies a tracking or kerning value above which ligatures will break apart. At the default value of 1, if you track text +1 (1/200th of an em space), the ligatures revert to standard letters.

  • Not "ffi" or "ffl": Check this box to prevent fi and fl ligatures in words such as "office" or "waffle" when ffi and ffl ligatures do not exist in the current font.

Working with OpenType stylistic sets

Some OpenType fonts with numerous alternate characters organize these alternates into stylistic sets. This eliminates the time-consuming task of selecting each alternate character individually to find which ones look best with which others.

OpenType stylistic sets allow you to instantly apply a group of related alternative characters to your text. Use the Measurements palette to choose from a number of available stylistic sets to apply to a whole selection of text at one time. QuarkXPress supports 33 OpenType stylistic sets.

Stylistic Sets enhancements:

  • Added the ability to apply more than one stylistic set to text at the same time.

  • Added the ability to display descriptive names of stylistic sets.

Use the Glyphs palette to access the available OpenType features in each font.

The Glyphs palette displays the available OpenType features for each font.

Working with Color Fonts

A color font file is a regular font file that embeds additional data to display more graphic properties than the contour shapes of a character.

QuarkXPress supports three color font formats:

  • SBIX: This is an Apple format, containing glyphs with bitmap raster data.

  • COLR: This is a Microsoft format, containing glyphs with vector data.

  • SVG: This is an Adobe and Mozilla format, containing glyphs with vector and raster data.

     

    Adobe Illustrator 2018 and Adobe Photoshop 2018 support SVG and SBIX fonts, while Text Edit, Pixelmator, and Sketch applications support SBIX fonts. QuarkXPress 2018 is the only applications supporting three color font formats and the only application to support COLR fonts.

To use a color font, just install the color font in one of the three supported formats in macOS or Windows and use it like any other font in QuarkXPress. QuarkXPress provides different font icons (, , ) for the three supported color font formats so that the color fonts are easily differentiable from normal fonts and from each other.

If an installed color font is available in more than one format on the system, then the one having the higher preference order will be enumerated in the font list. The preference order is: SVG, COLR, SBIX.

Both Windows and macOS have a default color font (Segoe UI Emoji font on Windows and  Apple Color Emoji on macOS).

Color fonts based on vector glyphs can be resized without any loss, just like any regular font. Color bitmap fonts, like any other photo or pixel-based image, will scale properly up to a certain size, depending on their original resolution. Beyond that resolution, the lettering will look pixelated.

Bitmap fonts will work in high-quality output (such as print), however that depends on the resolution added to such a font. You might see issue with bitmap-based fonts when you use large font sizes. If you use a color font that contains many hi-res bitmaps, the output will also significantly increase in size.

Emoji glyphs and color font glyphs can be inserted from the Glyph palette. If an emoji glyph has a multi code point value then the glyphs will be displayed as unencoded glyphs but can inserted as a single glyph.

Color fonts glyphs which have a single code point, can be inserted from System Character Viewer (Cmd+ Control + Escape) on Mac, Emoji Panel (Windows key + ,) or (Windows key+ ;) on Windows, Emoji key on Touch keyboard on Windows.  Multi code point Emoji sequences cannot be inserted as a single character, nor do the individual characters in correct sequence combine form a single emoji glyph. QuarkXPress doesn’t provide a UI option in the Glyph palette to access all variants of a base emoji glyph (like skin tone variants).

Working with the Glyphs palette

A glyph is the smallest unit of a font — each uppercase letter, for example, consists of its own glyph. To access all the glyphs in a font — especially an OpenType font that may include tens of thousands of glyphs — you need to view a complete character map. You can access such a character map in the Glyphs palette (Window menu), which enables you to view all the glyphs in the selected font, view bold or italic glyphs, double-click a glyph to insert that glyph in text, and save favorite glyphs for easy access.

The Glyphs palette makes it easy to work with large character sets and professional-quality fonts.

To view the glyphs in a font, display the Glyphs palette (Window menu) and choose a font and font style from the Font family and style menu in the upper-left corner. Options available in the Glyphs palette include the following:

  • You can use the Bold and Italic buttons to display the bold and italic versions of glyphs; if the bold, italic, or bold italic instance of the font is not active on your system, the application will simulate bold, italic, or bold italic on the glyphs as it does when you apply the Bold and Italic type styles using the Measurements palette.

  • To view a subset of the glyphs in the font, choose an option from the Show drop-down menu.

  • To see any alternates available for a glyph, click the box in the lower-right corner of an individual glyph's cell.

  • You can search for a glyph in the Glyph palette using Character or Unicode value options. 

  • If necessary, click the Zoom tool on the palette to increase the size of the glyphs.

  • If you need a glyph's Unicode code point — for HTML authoring, for example — you can see the Unicode code in the lower part of the palette.

  • To insert a glyph at the text insertion point, double-click the glyph in the Glyphs palette.

  • If you frequently use specific glyphs from a font, you can save those glyphs as favorites for quick access. To create a favorites list, first click the expander next to Favorite Glyphs in the Glyphs palette (Window menu). Then, simply drag a glyph to an empty cell in the Favorite Glyphs area. To delete a favorite, Control+click/right+click the glyph and use the context menu. The Unicode value of the selected glyph displays at the right bottom corner (above the Favorite Glyphs pane).

Displaying invisible characters

The Invisibles option (View menu) is always helpful when editing text or fine-tuning typography because it allows you to see common "invisible characters" such as spaces, tabs, and paragraph returns.

Inserting special characters

There are all kinds of special characters for typographic and formatting purposes. You can enter such special characters using keyboard commands or choose them from the Utilities > Insert Character submenu. Each character displays differently when invisibles are showing (View > Invisibles).

Inserting spaces

To insert a specific type of space — such as an em space — at the text insertion point, choose Utilities > Insert Character > Special > Em Space or Utilities > Insert Character > Special (nonbreaking) > Em Space. The options in the Nonbreaking Space submenu act as "glue" between two words or numbers, for example, preventing breaks from occurring between the two "glued" elements at the end of a line.

Inserting other special characters

To insert a special character other than a space — such as an em dash or a current page number placeholder character — at the text insertion point, choose Utilities > Insert Character > Special or Utilities > Insert Character > Special (nonbreaking).

Special characters (breaking and non breaking) can be searched for using the Find/Change palette, see "Finding and changing text".

Specifying character language

You can specify the language to be used for hyphenation and spell checking by applying a character language to text. This lets you mix words from different languages in the same paragraph without triggering poor hyphenation or more Suspect Words in Spell Check (Utilities menu). In addition to applying a specific language to characters, you can apply None so that a word is not considered for hyphenation or spell checking.

To apply a language to selected characters, use the Language drop-down menu in the Character tab of the Measurements palette.

Using font fallback

When Font Fallback is on, if the application encounters a character that is not available in the current font, it searches through the active fonts on your system to find a font that does include that character. For example, if Helvetica is applied at the text insertion point and you import or paste text containing a Kanji character, the application might apply the Hiragino font to that character. If the application cannot find an active font that contains the character, the character still displays as a box or symbol.

Font Fallback is implemented as an application preference, meaning that the feature is either on or off for your copy of the program. The feature is on by default, but if you need to turn it off, uncheck Font Fallback in the Font Fallback pane of the Preferences dialog box (QuarkXPress/Edit > Preferences).

For more information about the Font Fallback feature, see "Preferences — Application — Font Fallback."

Working with font mapping rules

When you open a project, the application checks to make sure all the fonts applied to text are active on your system. If not, the Missing Fonts alert displays, which gives you the opportunity to replace missing fonts with active fonts. You can save those replacements as global "font mapping rules," which can be applied automatically each time you open a project.

To create a font mapping rule, first open a project that uses a missing (inactive) font. Click List Fonts to display the Missing Fonts alert. Use the Replace button to choose replacement fonts for any missing fonts, then click Save As Rule. All the replacements listed in the Missing Fonts alert are saved as rules, even if only some replacements are selected. If you change your mind about a replacement, select its line and click Reset. You can also choose File > Revert to Saved after you open the article. This will display the Missing Fonts alert again and allow you to make changes. (Note that the changes apply only to that article — not to any rules you just saved.)

Once you create a font mapping rule by clicking Save As Rule in the Missing Fonts alert, the rule is saved in preferences for your copy of the application and applied to all articles. If you need to change, delete, or share font mapping rules, choose Utilities > Font Mapping.

You can use the Fonts pane (QuarkXPress/Edit > Preferences) to specify a default replacement font and to control whether the Missing Fonts alert displays when you open a project with missing fonts. For more information, see "Preferences — Application — Fonts."

Working with design grids

The design grid feature is an extension of the baseline grid feature in versions 7 and earlier of QuarkXPress and QuarkCopyDesk. Design grids make it even easier for you to define grids, allowing you to align text and objects precisely on both the page and text box levels.

For information on preferences related to design grids, see "Preferences — Layout — Guides and Grids."

For information on preferences related to design grids, see "Preferences — Layout — Guides and Grids" and "Preferences — Layout — Grid Cell Fill."

Understanding design grids

A design grid is a sequence of nonprinting guidelines for aligning text and items.

Grid lines

Each design grid includes the following grid lines: bottomline, baseline, centerline, and topline. In addition, design grids include a full cell box, which makes it easy for you to align characters vertically or horizontally. You can align text and items to any of these grid lines.

A line in a design grid includes a bottomline, a baseline, a centerline, and a topline.
In the horizontal story direction, a line in a design grid includes a bottomline, a baseline, a centerline, a topline, and a full cell box.
In the vertical story direction, a line in a design grid includes a leftline, a baseline, a centerline, a rightline, and a full cell box.
Master page grids and text box grids

There are two kinds of default design grids: Master page grids and text box grids. Every page and every text box has a design grid associated with it. You can hide or show design grids for an entire layout by choosing View > Page Grids or View > Text Box Grids.

You can configure a page's design grid by displaying the page's master page and then choosing Page > Master Guides & Grid. You can control a text box's design grid by choosing Grid Settings from the text box's context menu.

A page with its master page grid displayed, with all grid lines showing.
A page with its master page grid displayed, with only full cell boxes showing.
A text box with its text box grid displayed, with all grid lines showing.
A text box with its text box grid displayed, with the baseline and full cell boxes showing.

For more information, see "Using a master page grid."

To use the baseline grid feature as it existed in QuarkXPress and QuarkCopyDesk 7.x and earlier, show the baseline and hide the other grid lines.

Grid styles

A grid style is a named package of settings that describe a grid — like a style sheet for a design grid. You can apply grid styles to text boxes and can use them as the basis for master page grids. You can also base grid styles on other grid styles. Grid styles are displayed in the Grid Styles palette (Window menu). For more information, see "Working with grid styles."

Design grid basics

The following topics explain how to work with design grids. For information about grid styles, see "Working with grid styles."

Configuring a master page grid

To configure a master page grid, display a master page and then choose Page > Master Guides & Grid. The Master Guides & Grid dialog box displays.

Use the Master Guides & Grid dialog box to control master page grids.
  • Under Margin Guides, use the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right fields to specify margin placement relative to the top, bottom, left, and right edges of the page. To synchronize the values in the Top and Bottom or Left and Right fields, click the chain icon next to the fields.

  • Under Column Guides, enter a value in the Columns field to specify the number of columns on the master page. Enter a value in the Gutter Width field to define the space between columns.

  • The Content Dimensions field displays the area inside the margin guides.

  • To control the placement and spacing of the grid, use the controls in the Text Settings tab. For more information, see "Design grids: Text Settings tab."

  • To control the display of the grid, use the controls in the Display Settings tab. For more information, see "Design grids: Display Settings tab."

  • To preview changes as you make them, check Preview.

  • To use the specifications of an existing master page grid, grid style, or style sheet, click Load Settings. For more information, see "Loading grid settings."

Configuring a text box grid

To configure a text box grid, Control+click/right-click the text box and choose Grid Settings. The Grid Settings dialog box displays.

Grid Settings dialog box
  • To control the placement and spacing of the grid, use the controls in the Text Settings tab. For more information, see "Design grids: Text Settings tab."

  • To control the alignment of cells, use the controls in the Cell Alignment tab. For more information, see "Design grids: Cell Alignment tab."

  • To specify which grid lines display, use the controls in the Display Settings tab. For more information, see "Design grids: Display Settings tab."

  • To preview changes as you make them, check Preview.

  • To use the specifications of an existing master page grid, grid style, or style sheet, click Load Settings. For more information, see "Loading grid settings."

Design Grids: Text Settings tab

To determine the size, scale, and position of a design grid, use the controls in the Text Settings tab. The Text Settings tab displays in the Master Guides & Grid, Edit Grid Style, and the Grid Settings dialog boxes.

If you check Preview, you can view the results of changes as you make them.

Text Settings tab of Master Guides & Grid
  • Font Size: Enter a size to determine the height of each line in a design grid. This value also determines the full cell height and width.

  • Vertical Scaling: Enter a percentage value to adjust the height of each line in a design grid, based on the font size.

  • Font Scaling: Choose Horizontal or Vertical and enter a percentage of the font size in the field. If you choose Horizontal, this value determines the full cell width. If you choose Vertical, this value determines the full cell height.

  • Line Spacing and Leading: The Line Spacing and Leading values determine grid spacing. Line spacing is based on the following formula: Font Size multiplied by Vertical Scaling plus Line Spacing equals Leading. For example, if Font Size is 12 pt, Vertical Scaling is 100%, and Line Spacing is 2 pt, then Leading is 14 pt.

  • Line Spacing and Leading: The Line Spacing and Leading values determine grid spacing and cell spacing. Line spacing is based on the following formula: Font Size multiplied by Vertical font scaling or Horizontal font scaling plus Line Spacing equals Leading. For example, if Font Size is 12 pt, Vertical Scaling is 100%, and Line Spacing is 2 pt, then Leading is 14 pt.

  • When a design grid is based on a paragraph style sheet, the Leading value is defined in the style sheet. The Leading value can be a specific number or, if the value is auto, it is derived from the Auto Leading value in the Paragraph tab of the Preferences dialog box (QuarkXPress/Edit > Preferences). See "Loading grid settings" for information about linking style sheets to grid styles.

  • Character Spacing and Sending: The Character Spacing and Sending values determine the horizontal Full Cell spacing in horizontal story direction and the vertical Full Cell spacing in vertical story direction.

  • Baseline Position: Choose an option in this area to specify positioning for the baseline in the design grid.

To specify the offset origin, click Place at, choose Topline, Center (Up), Center (Down), or Bottomline in the from the drop-down menu, and then enter a percentage value in the field to specify the baseline position relative to the topline, centerline, or bottomline.

To read the offset origin from a font, click Read From Font and then select a font from the drop-down menu. The baseline defined for the selected font determines the baseline position for each line in the grid. The percentage value displayed below the font list indicates the relationship between the baseline and the bottomline in the font's design.

  • Offset: To control where the first line of the design grid is placed on the page or in the box, choose Topline, Centerline, Baseline, or Bottomline and enter a measurement value in the field.

  • Adjust: Click to display the Adjust Lines Within Margins dialog box for master page grids. For more information, see "Adjust Lines Within Margins dialog box."

  • Adjust: Click to display the Adjust Lines Within Margins dialog box for master page grids, or the Adjust Lines Within Box dialog box for text box grids. For more information, see "Adjust Lines Within Margins dialog box."

  • Lines within margin or Lines within box: This field displays the number of lines that can fit on a page or in a box, based on the settings above.

  • Cells per line: This field displays the number of cells that can fit on a line, based on the settings above.

Adjust Lines Within Margins dialog box

Use the Adjust Lines Within Margins dialog box (Master Guides&Grid > Adjust) to change the number of cells per line and the number of grid lines that fit within the margins of a master page.

Many of the controls in this dialog box are also in the Text Settings tab; changes are reflected in both locations.

Use the Adjust Lines Within Margins dialog box to adjust grid settings for a master page.
  • The Lines per page field displays the number of lines on a page. This value updates as you make changes.

  • Click + or next to a field to increase or decrease the number of lines on the page in one-line increments. For example, if the Lines per page value is 50, the Font Size value is 12 pt, and vertical font scaling is 100%, when you click + next to Font Size, the Lines per page value increases to 51 and the Font Size value decreases to 11.765 pt.

  • Enter values in the Cells per line and Lines per page fields to change the number of cells and lines on a page.

When you click Adjust Margins, changes to the Cells per line and Lines per page fields affect the Content Height and Content Width values. When you click Adjust Spacing, changes to the Cells per line and Lines per page fields affect the Leading and Sending values.

  • The increment bar displays a percentage (from 0 to +1) to indicate the fraction by which a grid pattern does not fit on the page. If the grid increments align perfectly, the increment bar displays 0. If the grid increments do not align perfectly with the page, an estimate of the fraction displays in the increment bar.

  • The Characters per page field displays the number of characters that can fit on a page, based on the current values.

  • Click Adjust Margins to adjust the Cells per line and Lines per page values based on changes to margin guide positions. Click one of the nine squares to anchor the base margin from which changes are calculated. The four outside squares anchor the top and left, top and right, bottom and left, and bottom and right margins. The middle squares anchor margins and link corresponding margins.

The Content Height and Content Width fields update according to your margin changes.

  • Click Adjust Spacing to adjust the Cells per line and Lines per page values based on your changes to the Line Space and Character Space fields. The Leading and Sending values update according to your changes.

  • Open Other Adjustments to access the Font Size, Offset, and Horizontal/Vertical scale controls. Changes to these values increase or decrease the Cells per line and Lines per page values.

  • Click Reset to restore the values in all fields to the state they were in before you displayed the dialog box.

If you check Preview before displaying this dialog box, you can view the results of changes as you make them.

Adjust Lines Within Box dialog box

Use the Adjust Lines Within Box dialog box (Grid Settings > Adjust) to change the number of cells per line and the number of grid lines that fit within the text box. Many of the controls in this dialog box are also in the Text Settings tab; changes are updated in both locations.

Use the Adjust Lines Within Box dialog box to adjust grid settings for an active text box.
  • Enter values in the Cells per line and Lines in Box field to change the number of cells and lines in the active box.

  • The increment bars display a percentage (from 0 to +1) to indicate the fraction by which a grid pattern does not fit in the box. If the Cells per line or Lines in Box increments align perfectly, the increment bar displays 0. If the grid increments do not align perfectly with the box, an estimate of the fraction displays in the increment bar.

  • The Characters in Box field displays the number of characters that can fit in the active text box, based on the values in the Adjust Lines Within Box dialog box. This field is not editable.

  • Click Adjust Text Box Size to automatically adjust the size of the text box to accommodate the Cells per line and Lines in Box value changes. The Box Width and Box Height fields update according to your changes.

  • Click Adjust Spacing to adjust the Cells per line and Lines per Box values based on your changes to the Line Space and Character Space fields. The Leading and Sending values update according to your changes.

  • Open Other Adjustments to access the Font Size, Offset, and Horizontal/Vertical scale controls. Changes to these values increase or decrease the Cells per line and Lines per Box values.

  • Click Reset to restore the values in all fields to the state they were in before you displayed the dialog box.

If you check Preview before displaying the Adjust Lines Within Box dialog box, you can view the results of changes when you close the dialog box.

Design grids: Display Settings tab

 A design grid includes separate lines to indicate the topline, the centerline, the baseline, the bottomline, and the full cell box.Use the controls in the Display Settings tab to show or hide grid lines and to specify grid line color, width, and style. The Display Settings tab displays in the Master Guides & Grid, Edit Grid Style, and the Grid Settings dialog boxes.

Display Settings tab in the Master Guides & Grid dialog box.
  • Check Show <grid line type> to display each type of grid line when the grid is displayed.

  • Click the Color box to specify a color for each grid line.

  • Choose a width from the Width drop-down menu.

  • Choose a style from the Style drop-down menu.

  • Choose a cell shape from the Shape drop-down menu.

  • Master Guides & Grid dialog box only: To specify the master page grid boundaries, choose Within Margins, To Page, or Pasteboard from the Show Grid drop-down menu.

Design grids: Cell Alignment tab

Use the Cell Alignment tab to specify how cells are aligned within the grid.

The Cell Alignment tab in the Grid Settings and Edit Grid Style dialog boxes
Loading grid settings

To use a grid style, style sheet, or master page grid as the basis for a master page grid or text box grid:

  1. Click Load Settings in the Master Guides & Grid, Grid Settings, or Edit Grid Style dialog box. The Load Settings dialog box displays.

    Select a grid style, style sheet, or master page in the Load Settings dialog box.
  2. Choose All, Grid Styles, Master Pages, or Paragraph Style Sheets from the Show drop-down menu.

  3. Select an existing grid style, style sheet, or master page from the list, and then click OK.

    The specifications in the grid style, style sheet, or master page you load are displayed in the Master Guides & Grid, Grid Settings, or Edit Grid Style dialog box. You can modify these grid settings after loading them.

    Grid style with "Body Copy" style sheet loaded

    If you load a style sheet for a grid style, you can specify that future changes to the style sheet update the grid style automatically by checking Link to Paragraph Style Sheet <style sheet name>. Notice that the font and spacing controls become unavailable.

    Grid style with "Body Copy" style sheet loaded and linked

Working with grid styles

A grid style includes grid attributes you can apply to a text box or use as the basis for a master page grid or another grid style.

Creating grid styles

To create, edit, duplicate, or delete grid styles, use the Grid Styles dialog box (Edit > Grid Styles).

Use the Grid Styles dialog box to create, edit, duplicate, and delete grid styles.

When you click New, Edit, or Duplicate in the Grid Styles dialog box, the Edit Grid Style dialog box displays.

The Edit Grid Style dialog box
  • To specify a name for the grid style, enter a value in the Name field.

  • To control the placement and spacing of the grid, use the controls in the Text Settings tab. For more information, see "Design grids: Text Settings tab."

  • To control the alignment of the full cell to the grid, use the controls in the Cell Alignment tab. For more information, see "Design grids: Cell Alignment tab."

  • To specify which grid lines display, use the controls in the Display Settings tab. For more information, see "Design grids: Display Settings tab."

  • To use the specifications of an existing master page grid, grid style, or style sheet, click Load Settings. For more information, see "Loading grid settings."

When you create a grid style with no projects open, that grid style becomes part of the default grid style list and is included in all subsequently created projects.

Applying a grid style to a text box

To apply a grid style to the selected text box:

  1. To display text box grids, make sure View > Text Box Grids is checked.

  2. To display the Grid Styles palette, make sure Window > Grid Styles is checked.

    Use the Grid Styles palette to apply grid styles to text boxes.
  3. Click a grid style name in the Grid Styles palette.

A plus sign next to a grid style name in the Grid Styles palette indicates that the text box grid has been modified since the grid style was applied to the text box. To apply the grid style again and override local text box grid formatting, click No Style and then click the grid style name (or press Option/Alt and click the modified grid style name).

Using design grids

After you apply design grids to text boxes or configure master page grids, you can use the grids for alignment. You can visually align items with design grids, and you can choose View > Snap to Page Grids to force items you move to align with master page grids.

Using a master page grid

To specify a master page grid for a layout page, apply the master page to the project page.

Locking text to a grid

Using a style sheet or local paragraph formatting, you can lock text to the master page grid or a text box grid. To lock text to a grid:

  1. To set up text locking for a style sheet, choose Edit > Style Sheets, select a paragraph style sheet, click Edit, and then click the Formats tab. To set up text locking for a paragraph, select the paragraph and use the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

    Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.
  2. In the Formats tab, check Lock to Grid.

  3. To specify the grid to which the text will lock, choose Page Grid or Text box Grid from the first drop-down menu below Lock to Grid.

  4. To specify the grid line to which text will lock, choose Topline, Centerline, Baseline, or Bottomline from the second drop-down menu below Lock to Grid.

Snapping items to design grids

You can make items snap to master page grid lines, and when you resize a text box, you can snap to the text box grid.

To snap to a master page grid line, display the master page grid (View > Page Grid) and then choose View > Snap to Page Grid.

The Snap Distance field in the Guides & Grids pane of the Preferences dialog box enables you to change the 6-pixel default distance at which items snap to page grids when Snap to Page Grids is chosen (View menu).

To snap to a text box grid line when you resize a text box, display the text box grid and resize the box.

Aligning grids

 To align a text box grid line or cell to a master page grid line or a guide:

  1. Make sure View > Guides, View > Page Grids, and View > Text Box Grids are checked.

  2. Select the Item tool .

  3. Click a grid line in the text box and then drag the box. Note that even as you move the grid line, the original position of the box continues to display. You can align the selected grid line with another grid line in the box, a master page grid line, or a guide. (See notes on Live Drag below.)

  4. Click a grid line or cell in the text box and then drag the box. Notice how the selected grid line or cell you're moving displays and the original position of the box continues to display. You can align the selected grid line with another grid line or cell in the box, a master page grid line, or a guide.

Live drag is a feature that lets you see the contents of an item while you are moving the item. However, selected grid lines or cells do not display when live drag is active.

Working with rubi text

Rubi text clarifies the meaning or pronunciation of base text. Base text can run vertically or horizontally, and rubi text usually follows the direction of the base text. Rubi text can be placed to the right of or to the left of base text in a vertical story, and above or below base text in a horizontal story.

There are two types of rubi text: mono rubi and group rubi. Mono rubi is rubi text that is associated with a single character of the base text. Group rubi is rubi text that is associated with more than one character of the base text.

You can manipulate the alignment, placement, scale, font, color, opacity, shade, type style, and relative size of rubi text. In addition, you can choose from several options that allow you to control rubi text that overhangs unrelated base text.

Use the Rubi dialog box (Style menu) to add rubi text to selected base text.

The Rubi dialog box

You can apply automatic rubi to a series of words (separated by spaces or punctuation) by selecting a range of text and then pressing Command+Option+R/Ctrl+Alt+R. For more information about automatic rubi, see the Rubi Text bullet in the list under "Text tab," below.

Text tab

The Text tab of the Rubi dialog box lets you control the following options:

  • Rubi Text: Use this field to specify the rubi text to be applied to the selected base text. When you display the Rubi dialog box for a new rubi, the application automatically fills this field with a phonetic reading of the base text from the input method editor (IME). This feature works for languages for which IME dictionaries are available (as of this writing, Chinese and Japanese only).

  • Get Rubi: Use this button to refresh the content of the Rubi Text field from the IME.

  • Base Text: This field displays the selected base text.

  • Rubi Alignment: Use this drop-down menu to control how non-overhanging rubi text aligns with the base text. For more information, see "Rubi alignment options."

  • Rubi Placement: Use this drop-down menu to specify whether rubi text displays above or below the base text (in a horizontal story) or to the left of or right of the base text (in a vertical story).

  • Relative Size: Use this field to specify the size of the rubi text compared to the base text.

  • Offset: Use this field to control how far the rubi text is offset from the base text.

  • Overhang Rubi: Use this field to control how far the rubi text can overhang base text that is unrelated to the rubi text. For more information, see "Rubi overhang options." Note that this feature is disabled when Base Alignment is set to None.

  • Base Alignment: Use this field to control how base text aligns with overhanging rubi text. For more information, see "Rubi base alignment options."

  • Auto Align At Line Edges: Check this box to automatically align rubi text with the border of a text box when the rubi text overhangs the base text and touches the edge of the text box.

Character Attributes tab

The Character Attributes tab of the Rubi dialog box lets you control rubi text formatting.

Use the Character Attributes tab to specify how rubi characters display
  • The Font, StyleSize, Color, Shade, Opacity, Scale, Track/Sending, Baseline Shift, and Type Styles controls let you apply basic formatting to the text.

  • To enable or disable the use of specifically designed Kana glyphs for Rubi, check or uncheck Rubi Annotations. These glyphs are available only in some Japanese OpenType fonts.

Rubi alignment options

The Rubi Alignment options in the Text tab of the Rubi dialog box (Style menu) are:

  • Left: Aligns rubi text with the left side of base text in a horizontal story.

  • Centered: Aligns rubi text with the center of base text in a horizontal or vertical story.

  • Right: Aligns rubi text with the right side of base text in a horizontal story.

  • Top: Aligns rubi text with the top of base text in a vertical story.

  • Bottom: Aligns rubi text with the bottom of base text in a vertical story.

  • Justified: Centers rubi text above or next to base text as shown in the diagram below.

Justified alignment of rubi text
  • Forced: Aligns rubi text flush with the left and right of base text in a horizontal story, or flush with the top and bottom of base text in a vertical story.

Forced alignment of rubi text
  • 1–2–1 (JIS) Rule: Aligns rubi text with base text according to a 1:2:1 ratio, leaving a certain amount of space at the beginning and end of the line of rubi text.

1–2–1 (JIS) Rule alignment of rubi text
  • Equal Space: Aligns rubi text so that the space at the beginning of the line of rubi text, the space at the end of the line of rubi text, and the spaces between each rubi text character are equal.

Equal Space alignment of rubi text
  • 1 Rubi Space: Aligns rubi text so that the space at the beginning of the line of rubi text and the space at the end of the line of rubi text are equal to the width of one rubi text character but not equal to the spaces between each rubi text character. The spaces between rubi text characters are distributed evenly.

1 Rubi Space alignment of rubi text

Mono rubi

To control the placement of individual rubi text characters, insert a backslash or Japanese Yen sign between rubi text characters in the Rubi Text field of the Rubi dialog box (Style menu).

Backslashes between rubi text characters indicate mono rubi.

For example, if you select two base text characters that are associated with three rubi text characters, and you want only the first rubi text character to be placed over the first base text character and the other two to be placed over the second base character, insert a backslash between the first and second rubi text characters. Backslashes correspond with the spaces between base text characters, so you can place as many rubi text characters between backslashes as you want.

Backslashes correspond with the space between base text characters

Rubi base alignment options

You can apply Base Alignment options only when rubi text overhangs the base text. The Base Alignment options are:

  • None: No base text alignment is applied.

  • Left: Aligns base text with the left side of rubi text in a horizontal story.

  • Centered: Aligns base text under or next to rubi text so that rubi text has equal overhang on each side of the base text.

  • Right: Aligns base text with the right side of rubi text in a horizontal story.

  • Top: Aligns base text with the top of rubi text in a vertical story.

  • Bottom: Aligns base text with the bottom of rubi text in a vertical story.

  • Justified: Centers base text under or next to rubi text as shown in the diagram below. (Note that this diagram assumes that Rubi Overhang is set to None. If rubi text is set to overhang by a particular amount, the rubi characters extend beyond the left and right edges of the base character sequence by that amount, and the base characters are justified in the remaining space.)

Justified alignment of base text
  • Forced: Aligns base text flush with the left and right of rubi text in a horizontal story, or flush with the top and bottom of rubi text in a vertical story. (Note that this diagram assumes that Rubi Overhang is set to None. If rubi text is set to overhang by a particular amount, the rubi characters extend beyond the left and right edges of the base character sequence by that amount, and the base characters are force-justified in the remaining space.)

Forced alignment of base text
  • 1–2–1 (JIS) Rule: Aligns base text with rubi text according to a 1:2:1 ratio, leaving a certain amount of space at the beginning and end of the line of base text.

1–2–1 (JIS) Rule alignment of base text
  • Equal Space: Aligns base text so that the space at the beginning of the line of base text, the space at the end of the line of base text, and the spaces between base text characters are equal. (Note that this diagram assumes that Rubi Overhang is set to None. If rubi text is set to overhang by a particular amount, the rubi characters extend beyond the left and right edges of the base character sequence by that amount, and the base characters are distributed in the remaining space.)

Equal Space alignment of base text

Rubi overhang options

The Overhang Rubi options in the Text tab of the Rubi dialog box (Style menu)let you control how far rubi text characters overhang on either side of a base text character that is unrelated to overhanging rubi text characters. The colored diagrams below demonstrate the different Overhang Rubi options. Yellow signifies base text and rubi text that are related to each other. Blue signifies base text that is unrelated to the overhanging rubi text.

  • None: No overhang is allowed.

  • Up to 1 Rubi Character: Allows the full width of a rubi text character to overhang an unrelated base text character.

Up to 1 Rubi Character
  • Up to ½ Rubi Character: Allows ½ the width of a rubi text character to overhang an unrelated base text character.

Up to ½ Rubi Character
  • Up to 1 Base Character: Allows the full width of a base text character to be placed under unrelated rubi text characters.

Up to 1 Base Character
  • Up to ½ Base Character: Allows ½ the width of a base character to be placed under unrelated rubi text characters.

Up to ½ Base Character
  • Unrestricted: Allows overhang without any restrictions.

Working with hanging characters

Hanging character sets handle both hanging punctuation and margin alignment. Margin alignment lets you hang characters partially outside the margin to create visually uniform text alignment along the margin. Hanging punctuation lets you hang punctuation characters fully outside the margin so that the text is flush against either a uniform margin at the beginning of a line of text (leading) or against a uniform margin at the end of a line of text (trailing).For example, the quotation mark in the first sample text below is hanging outside the leading margin, which allows the first character in the first line of text to align evenly with the rows of text below it. The quotation mark in the second sample text below is hanging outside the trailing margin.

The opening quotation mark in this sample text is a leading hanging character
The closing quotation mark in this sample text is a trailing hanging character
The second line in this sample text shows no hang on the left, but shows a leading hang on the right.
The punctuation characters in this sample text are trailing hanging characters.

You can create custom hanging character classes and hanging character sets, or you can use the default classes and sets that come with the software. A hanging character class is a group of characters that should always hang outside the margin or indent inside the margin by the same percentage. A hanging character set is a group of hanging character classes. You can use a hanging character set to apply one or several hanging character classes to paragraphs.

To view, create, edit, duplicate, and delete hanging character sets and classes, use the Hanging Characters dialog box (Edit > Hanging Characters).

The Hanging Characters dialog box

Hanging character sets are preceded by a icon. Hanging character classes are preceded by a icon.

If you select a hanging character set in the center pane of the dialog box, the lower pane displays the hanging character classes that belong to that set. If you select a class in the center pane of the dialog box, the lower pane displays the sets to which the selected class belongs and the attributes of the selected class.

To compare hanging character sets or classes, select two classes or sets in the Hanging Characters dialog box and press Option/Alt. The Append button changes to Compare.

Creating hanging character classes

Use the Edit Hanging Character Class dialog box (Edit > Hanging Characters > New > Class) to specify the characters to be included in a hanging character class, the hang percentage of the class, and whether the class is leading or trailing.

The Edit Hanging Character Class dialog box

Enter characters in the Characters pane. Then choose a percentage from the Hang drop-down menu. The hang percentage specifies what percentage of the glyph width should always hang over the margin or what percentage of the glyph width should always indent. For example, if you choose –50%, the characters in the character class indent inside of the margin by half of their glyph width. If you choose 100%, the characters in the character class hang outside of the margin by their full glyph width.

Next, choose whether the character class is Leading or Trailing. Characters in a Leading class hang over the beginning margin. Characters in a Trailing class hang over the end margin.

After you have saved a hanging character class in a hanging character set, you can check Preview to view changes to the hanging character class as you edit.

Creating hanging character sets

Use the Edit Hanging Character Set dialog box (Edit > Hanging Characters > New > Set) to specify the hanging character classes to be included in a hanging character set.

The Edit Hanging Character Set dialog box

The center pane of the dialog box displays all of the available hanging character classes that can be added to a hanging character set. Check the boxes next to the classes you want to add, give the hanging character set a name, and then click OK.

To edit a hanging character class before saving the new hanging character set, select the class and click Edit Class.

You cannot specify different leading or trailing values for a single character within a hanging character set.

Applying hanging character sets

To apply a hanging character set to text, choose an option from the Hanging Character Set drop-down menu in the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

To apply a hanging character set to a paragraph style sheet, choose an option from the Hanging Character Sets drop-down menu in the Formats tab of the Edit Paragraph Style Sheet dialog box (Edit > Style Sheets > New > Paragraph or Edit > Style Sheets > Edit).

Working with Mojigumi sets and classes

The Mojigumi feature lets you control spacing for specific punctuation characters when they occur in particular locations. To use this feature, you must choose or create a Mojigumi character class and a Mojigumi set.

  • A Mojigumi character class is a named set of punctuation characters that should always be spaced in a particular way.

  • A Mojigumi set is a set of character spacing specifications based on the widths of character em boxes. For example, a mojigumi set might dictate that open punctuation should use fixed half-width spacing when it occurs at the beginning of a line, and that close punctuation should use full-width or half-width spacing when it occurs at the end of a line. Each Mojigumi set is associated with one mojigumi character class.

To use the Mojigumi feature, apply a mojigumi set to a paragraph. The Mojigumi set's settings are applied to the characters in the associated mojigumi character class.

For example, if you do not want a parenthesis to occupy a full em-box width when it occurs between two full-width characters, you can create a Mojigumi character class that contains parentheses and then specify in the Mojigumi set settings that these characters should always use a half-em width when they fall between two full em-width characters.

Only one Mojigumi set can be applied to each paragraph.

For more information about the difference between characters and glyphs, see "Working with the Glyphs palette."

Creating and editing Mojigumi character classes

A Mojigumi character class is a named set of punctuation characters that is designed to be used with a Mojigumi set (for more information, see "Working with Mojigumi sets and classes"). You can create custom Mojigumi character classes, or you can use the default Mojigumi character classes that come with the software.

To create a custom Mojigumi character class:

  1. Choose Edit > Mojigumi > Character Classes. The Mojigumi Character Classes dialog box displays.

  2. Click New. The Edit Mojigumi Character Class dialog box displays.

  3. Enter a name in the Name field.

  4. Enter characters in the OpenPunctuation field, the Close Punctuation (Paren) field, the Close Punctuation (Kutoh-ten) field, and the Middle Punctuation field.

  5. Click OK.

  6. Click Save.

Kutoh-ten is a Japanese word meaning "period and comma."

Creating and editing Mojigumi sets

A Mojigumi set is a set of specifications that can be associated with a Mojigumi character class and then applied to paragraphs. For more information, see "Working with Mojigumi sets and classes."

To create a Mojigumi set, choose Edit > Mojigumi > Sets to display the Mojigumi Sets dialog box. Next, click New. When the Edit Mojigumi Set dialog box displays, enter a name in the Name field and then choose a Mojigumi character class from the Class drop-down menu.

The settings in the Edit Mojigumi Sets dialog box let you control the width or spacing for characters in the specified Mojigumi character class. You can also control which adjustments take priority.

The Edit Mojigumi Sets dialog box
  • Name: Displays the name of the Mojigumi set being edited.

  • Units: Specify the units that you prefer to see in this dialog.

  • Class: Displays the name of the Mojigumi character class being edited.

Open Punctuation
  • Begin Line: Specify character width or spacing for opening punctuation that falls at the beginning of a line.

  • Mid Line: Specify character width or spacing for opening punctuation that falls in the middle of a line.

  • Begin Paragraph: Specify character width or spacing for opening punctuation that falls at the beginning of a paragraph. This setting takes priority over the Begin Line setting.

Close Punctuation
  • Mid Line (Parens): Specify character width or spacing for closing punctuation that falls in the middle of a line.

  • Mid Line (Kutoh-ten): Specify character width or spacing for Kutoh-ten that falls in the middle of a line. Kutoh-ten is a Japanese word meaning "period and comma."

  • End Line: Specify character width or spacing for closing punctuation that falls at the end of a line.

Middle Punctuation
  • Begin Line: Specify character width or spacing for middle punctuation that falls at the beginning of a line.

  • Mid Line: Specify character width or spacing for middle punctuation that falls in the middle of a line.

  • End Line: Specify character width or spacing for middle punctuation that falls at the end of aline.

  • Begin Paragraph: Specify character width or spacing for middle punctuation that falls at the beginning of a paragraph. This setting takes priority over the Begin Line setting.

Contiguous Punctuation
  • Open — Open: Specify character width or spacing for adjacent opening punctuation. For example: ((

  • Close (Parens) — Open: Specify character width or spacing for adjacent closing and opening punctuation. For example: )(

  • Kutoh-ten — Open: Specify character width or spacing for Kutoh-ten that is adjacent to opening punctuation. Kutoh-ten is a Japanese word meaning "period and comma." For example:. (

  • Close — Close: Specify character width or spacing for adjacent closing punctuation. For example: ))

  • Close — Middle: Specify character width or spacing for adjacent closing and middle punctuation. For example: ;)

  • Middle — Open: Specify character width or spacing for adjacent middle and opening punctuation. For example: (:

CJK & R Space

Specify the character spacing for Chinese, Japanese, or Korean characters that are adjacent to Roman characters. This feature overrides the percentage in the Space between CJK & R field in the Character panes of the Preferences dialog box (QuarkXPress/Edit > Preferences). However, this affects only the characters in the Mojigumi character set.

Character Width Setting, Character Space Setting

Specify the character width or spacing for Open Punctuation, Close Punctuation, Middle Punctuation, and Contiguous Punctuation.

  • Fixed Full Width: Specify the character width to a fixed full-em width.

  • Fixed Half Width: Specify the character width to a fixed half-em width.

  • Full Width to Half Width: Specify the character width to a full-em width, but allow characters to be squeezed down to a half-em width.

  • Half Width to Full Width: Specify the character glyph width to a half-em width, but allow characters to be stretched up to a full-em width.

  • Full Width or Half Width: Allow characters to fit either a full-em width or a half-em width. Full width has priority.

  • Half Width or Full Width: Allow characters to fit either a half-em width or a full-em width. Half width has priority.

  • Full Width Space: Specify the space between character glyphs to a full-em width.

  • Half Width Space: Specify the space between character glyphs to a half-em width.

  • Full Width to No Space: Specify the space between character glyphs to a full-em width, but allow spaces to be squeezed to no-em width.

  • Half Width to No Space: Specify the space between character glyphs to a half-em width, but allow spaces to squeeze to no-em width.

  • None to Half Width Space: Specify the space between character glyphs to no-em width, but allow spaces to be stretched to a half-em width.

  • Quarter Width Space: Specify the space between character glyphs to a quarter-em width.

  • Quarter Width to No Space: Specify the space between character glyphs to a quarter-em width, but allow spaces to be squeezed to no-em width.

Priority

Specify the order in which Mojigumi spacing adjusts.

  • High: Adjust first.

  • Mid: Adjust second.

  • Low: Adjust last.

Preview

Enable or disable an editable preview of the width and spacing settings.

Applying Mojigumi sets

To apply a Mojigumi set to a paragraph, choose its name from the Mojigumi Sets drop-down menu in the Paragraph tab of the Measurements palette.

To apply a Mojigumi set to a paragraph style sheet, choose the Mojigumi set name from the Mojigumi Sets drop-down menu in the Format tab of the Edit Paragraph Style Sheet dialog box (Edit > Style Sheets > New > Paragraph or Edit > Style Sheets > Edit).

You can apply only one Mojigumi set to a paragraph.

Character mapping for legacy projects

Projects saved in East Asian versions of QuarkXPress earlier than 8.0 do not contain Unicode text. Rather, they contain text that is stored with a particular encoding (such as GB2312, Big5, ShiftJIS, or x-mac-korean). When you open such files in QuarkXPress 8 or later, the application attempts to automatically convert encoding-specific characters to Unicode characters. However, the default Unicode conversion may not work for the following types of characters:

  • Characters that are in a Traditional Chinese encoding's UDA/VDA (User Defined Area/Vendor Defined Area) range.

  • Characters that are in an encoding's custom character range.

Those characters may not map to specific Unicode glyphs, so the glyphs that correspond to these code points may differ from font to font. For example, a character that is in an encoding's UDA/VDA range may map to one glyph in a font that uses the Taiwanese Big5 character mapping standard, but map to a different glyph in a font that uses Hong Kong's Big5 character mapping standard. A character in an encoding's custom character range may be mapped to glyphs that are specific to a particular language or industry.

QuarkXPress includes mapping tables that make it easy to solve the first problem. You can also create your own mapping tables to accommodate projects that use custom characters.

Mapping for projects that use UDA/VDA characters

When you open a project created in a Chinese version of QuarkXPress 3 or 4, QuarkXPress automatically highlights all UDA/VDA characters to indicate that they should be checked to make sure they display the proper glyph. You can turn off this highlighting by unchecking the Highlight characters defined by Traditional Chinese font vendors box in the Fonts pane of the Preferences dialog box(QuarkXPress/Edit >Preferences).

If a project's highlighted glyphs display incorrectly, you may need to map the characters in that project to Unicode using a mapping table. A mapping table is a text file that tells QuarkXPress how to convert text that uses a particular flavor of encoding to Unicode. Each mapping table contains a list of encoding-specific code points and their corresponding Unicode codepoints.

If you know that a pre-8.0 project uses (for example) the Hong Kong Big5 encoding, you can use a Hong Kong Big5 mapping table to convert its characters to Unicode when you first open the project in QuarkXPress 8.0 or later. QuarkXPress ships with several such mapping tables. To use one of these included mapping tables, first navigate to the "CustomMappingTables" folder:

  • Mac OS X: [DRIVE]:Library:Application Support:Quark:QuarkXPress[version]:CustomMappingTables

  • Windows: [DRIVE]:\ProgramData\Quark\QuarkXPress[version]\CustomMappingTables

Within this folder are the following mapping table files:

  • chinsimpmac.txt: Used for legacy files that use Mac OS X Simplified Chinese encodings.

  • chintradbig5.txt: Used for legacy files that use Traditional Chinese encodings.

  • japanesemac.txt: Used for legacy files that use Mac OS X Japanese encodings

  • japanesewin.txt: Used for legacy files that use Windows Japanese encodings.

  • koreanmac.txt: Used for legacy files that use Mac OS X Korean encodings.

  • koreanwin.txt: Used for legacy files that use Windows Korean encodings.

As installed, these mapping tables contain instructions for creating custom mappings, but they do not include any actual mappings. To utilize a special mapping, you must replace one of these files with a file that does contain mappings for a particular type of encoding. You can find such files in the folders in the "LegacyMappingTables" folder (inside the "CustomMappingTables" folder):

  • Hong Kong: Contains a "chintradbig5.txt" file that maps Hong Kong Big5 characters to Unicode.

  • Korean: Contains a "koreanmac.txt" file that maps Mac OS X Korean characters to Unicode.

  • Taiwanese: Contains a "chintradbig5.txt" file that maps Taiwan Big5 characters to Unicode.

For example, if you have a pre-8.0 project that uses the Hong Kong Big5 encoding, copy the "chintradbig5.txt" folder from the LegacyMappingTables/Hong Kong folder to the "CustomMappingTables" folder, replacing the existing "chintradbig5.txt" file (you may want to save a copy of the original "chintradbig5.txt" file elsewhere). Then quit QuarkXPress, relaunch, and open the project. When you open the project, QuarkXPress uses the Hong Kong-specific mapping table to convert the project's Big5 text to Unicode.

Mapping tables are used only when opening pre-8.0 projects. Once you have saved a project in the current QuarkXPress version format, the text is in Unicode and the mapping table is no longer required.

Mapping for projects that use custom characters

If characters in a legacy project use an extended code range, those characters may display incorrectly when you open that project in QuarkXPress 8.0 or later. To fix this problem, you can change the way the problematic characters are mapped to Unicode characters by using a custom mapping table. A mapping table is a text file that tells QuarkXPress how to convert text that uses a particular flavor of encoding to Unicode. Each mapping table contains a list of encoding-specific code points and their corresponding Unicode code points.

To create a mapping table, first navigate to the "CustomMappingTables" folder:

  • Mac OS X: [DRIVE]:Library:Application Support:Quark:QuarkXPress[version]:CustomMappingTables

  • Windows: [DRIVE]:\Documents and Settings\ProgramData\Quark\QuarkXPress[version]\CustomMappingTables

Within this folder are the following mapping table files:

  • chinsimpmac.txt: Used for legacy files that use Mac OS X Simplified Chinese encodings.

  • chintradbig5.txt: Used for legacy files that use Traditional Chinese encodings.

  • japanesemac.txt: Used for legacy files that use Mac OS X Japanese encodings.

  • japanesewin.txt: Used for legacy files that use Windows Japanese encodings.

  • koreanmac.txt: Used for legacy files that use Mac OS X Korean encodings.

  • koreanwin.txt: Used for legacy files that use Windows Korean encodings.

As installed, these mapping tables contain instructions for creating custom mappings, but they do not include any actual mappings. To create custom mappings, open the file that corresponds to the encoding used by the target project, and then follow the instructions in the file to create the mappings you need. Then quit QuarkXPress, relaunch, and open the project. When you open the project, QuarkXPress uses your custom mapping table to convert the project's characters to Unicode.

Mapping tables are used only when opening pre-8.0 projects. Once you have saved a project in the current QuarkXPress version format, the text is in Unicode and the mapping table is no longer required.

Type Tricks

Type Tricks adds the following typographic utilities: Make Fraction, Make Price, Word Space Tracking, Line Check, and Custom Underline.

Make Fraction

The Make Fraction command (Style > Type Style) enables you to format fractions automatically. This command becomes active when a fraction is selected or the cursor is placed adjacent to (and on the same line as) the characters that make up the fraction. Examples of fractions that could be formatted are: 11/42, 131/416, and 11/4x.

To convert characters into a fraction, select the characters and choose Style > Type Style > Make Fraction.

The characters in the fraction are converted using Baseline Shift and the formatting specified in the Fraction/Price tab of the Preferences dialog box (QuarkXPress/Edit > Preferences > Application > Fraction/Price).

Make Price

The Make Price command (Style > Type Style) enables you to format prices automatically. This command is available when text that can be formatted as a price (such as $1.49, £20.00, and a.bc) is selected or the cursor is adjacent to (and on the same line as) any of the characters. A price must contain a radix (decimal symbol), which is indicated by a period or comma. Characters before and after the radix can be only letters or numbers.

To convert characters to a price, select the characters you want to format and choose Style > Type Style > Make Price.

When you apply Make Price, QuarkXPress automatically applies the superior type style to the characters that follow the radix.

The appearance of converted fractions and prices is determined by the values and selections entered in the Fraction/Price tab of the Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences > Application > Fraction/Price).

Word Space Tracking

The Word Space Tracking feature enables you to apply tracking to word spaces only. (Tracking values are normally applied between both characters and words.) This feature can only be accessed through keyboard commands.

Mac OS X

Tracking value

Command

Increase space by .05 em

Command+Control+Shift+]

Increase space by .005 em

Command+Control+Option+Shift+]

Decrease space by .05 em

Command+Control+Shift+[

Decrease space by .005 em

Command+Control+Option+Shift+[

Windows

Tracking value

Command

Increase space by .05 em

Control+Shift+@

Increase space by .005 em

Control+Alt+Shift+@

Decrease space by .05 em

Control+Shift+!

Decrease space by .005 em

Control+Alt+Shift+!

Word Space Tracking is applied by applying manual kerning after each selected space. To remove Word Space Tracking, select the text and then choose Style > Remove Manual Kerning

Line Check

Use the Line Check feature to find widows, orphans, loosely justified lines, lines that end with a hyphen, and text box overflow. Line Check (Utilities > Line Check) moves through a document, highlighting questionable lines.

To specify what Line Check should look for, display the Search Criteria dialog box (Utilities > Line Check > Search Criteria) and check the categories of undesirable typography you want to search for:

  • Loose Justification is a justified line containing word or character spaces that exceed the maximum word or character space values in the hyphenation and justification specifications applied to the paragraph.

  • An Auto Hyphenated line ends with a hyphen placed by the automatic hyphenation function.

  • A Manual Hyphenated line ends with a hyphen entered by a user.

  • A Widow is the last line of a paragraph, less than a full measure wide, that falls at the top of the following column or page.

  • An Orphan is the first line of a paragraph that falls at the bottom of a column or page.

  • Text Box Overflow occurs when text cannot be displayed within its text box. This condition is represented by an overflow symbol in the lower right corner of a text box.

To search the entire document, place the cursor somewhere in the text and choose Utilities > Line Check > First Line. To search from the location of the cursor to the end of the document, place the cursor where you want to start the search and choose Utilities > Line Check > Next Line or press Command+;/Ctrl+;. To continue the search, press Command+;/Ctrl+;.

Custom Underline

The Custom Underline feature lets you customize the color, shade, width, and offset of underlines. Custom underlines behave much like type style underlines, but can be customized with more control over the underline attributes.

Custom underline styles work much like style sheets. To create, edit, or delete an underline style, choose Edit > Underline Styles. To apply a custom underline style, choose its name from the Style > Type Style > Underline Styles submenu.

To apply a custom underline, select the text you want to underline and choose  Style > Type Style > Underline Styles > Custom . In the Underline Attributes dialog box, you can specify the color, shade, width, and offset of the underline.

To remove a custom underline, select the text and then choose Style > Type Style > Underline Styles > Remove Custom Underline.

Hyperlinks

In most HTML tools, you create a hyperlink by selecting a range of text or an image and then entering the URL into a field. QuarkXPress does things a little differently.

The Hyperlinks palette

Destinations

A destination is a "container" for a particular URL. Just as a QuarkXPress project can contain lists of colors and style sheets, it can contain a list of destinations. Each destination contains one of the following types of URL:

  • URL: Points to a particular resource on the Web.

  • Page: Points to a particular page in the same layout.

  • Anchor: Points to a particular part of a page in the layout.

Although the user interface differentiates between URLs, pages, and anchors, the actual link included in the exported HTML file is always a URL.

Just like colors and style sheets, each destination has a name. You can give any name you want to a destination. For example, if you have a destination for the URL http://www.quark.com, you could name it "Quark Web Site."

Just as you can see a list of a project's colors in the Colors palette, you can see the list of a project's destinations in the Hyperlinks palette. And just as you can apply a color from the Colors palette, you can "apply" a destination to the selected text or item by clicking that hyperlink in the Hyperlinks palette.

You can edit your list of destinations in the Hyperlinks dialog box (Edit menu). Note that as with colors, a project's destination list can contain destinations that are not actually used in the project.

If you prefer to create hyperlinks by selecting something and then entering a URL, you can still do so in QuarkXPress. However, you should be aware that when you do so, you are creating a destination, and that destination will be added to the project's list of destinations and listed in the Hyperlinks palette.

Anchors

An anchor is simply a marker that you have attached to an object somewhere in the layout. You can attach anchors to the following:

  • A word, character, or string in a raster or HTML text box or in text on a path

  • A picture box

  • A particular area in an image map

  • A particular cell in a table

  • An empty box

  • A line

In QuarkXPress, anchor indicators look like this: or .

Creating a destination

A destination contains a URL that a hyperlink can point to. To create a destination:

  1. Choose Window > Hyperlinks. The Hyperlinks palette displays.

    • To specify the URL manually, choose URL, and then either type the URL in the URL field or use the Select button to create a path to a particular file. (Keep in mind that you must make sure the path is still valid in the exported HTML page.) You can choose from four common protocols using the drop-down menu next to the URL field.

    • To link to a different page in the same layout, choose Page from the Type field and then choose a page from the Page drop-down menu.

    • To link to a particular anchor in the same layout, choose Anchor from the Type field and then choose an anchor from the Anchor drop-down menu.

  2. Click OK. (If you are adding multiple destinations, press Shift while you click OK, and the New Hyperlink dialog box will remain open.)

    Create a destination using the New Hyperlink dialog box.

Creating an anchor

An anchor is simply a pointer to a specific place in a layout. To create an anchor:

  1. Choose Window > Hyperlinks. The Hyperlinks palette displays.

    • Click the New Anchor button in the Hyperlinks palette.

    • Choose Style > Anchor > New.

    • Display the Hyperlinks palette menu and choose New Anchor.

    • Display the context menu for the selected text or item and choose Anchor > New.

  2. Enter a name for the anchor in the Anchor Name field or choose an unused anchor name from the drop-down menu.

  3. Click OK.

    Configure a new anchor using the New Anchor dialog box.

To create an "empty" anchor, deselect everything and then click the New Anchor button in the Hyperlinks palette. Use this method to create hyperlinks that point to anchors in parts of the layout that you don't have access to or that you haven't created yet.

Creating a hyperlink using an existing destination

A hyperlink is a text string, box, or line that points to a particular destination. To create a hyperlink using an existing destination, select the range of text or picture box you want to use as the hyperlink, and then do one of the following:

  • Click a destination in the Hyperlinks palette.

  • Choose Style > Hyperlink > [destination].

  • Display the context menu for the selected text or item and choose Hyperlink > [destination].

Creating a hyperlink from scratch

A hyperlink is a text string, box, or line that points to a particular destination. To create a hyperlink and a destination at the same time:

  1. Select the range of text or item you want to use as the hyperlink.

    • Click the New Hyperlink button in the Hyperlinks palette.

    • Choose Style > Hyperlink > New.

    • Display the context menu for the selected text or box and choose Hyperlink.

    • To specify the URL manually, choose URL, and then either type the URL in the URL field or use the Select button to create a path to a particular file. (Keep in mind that you must make sure the path is still valid in the exported HTML page.) You can choose from four common protocols using the drop-down menu next to the URL field.

    • To link to a different page in the same layout, choose Page and then choose a page from the Page drop-down menu.

    • To link to a particular anchor in the same layout, choose Anchor and then choose an anchor from the Anchor drop-down menu.

  2. Click OK.

Showing links in the Hyperlinks palette

The Show buttons and drop-down menu in the Hyperlinks palette let you control what is displayed in the palette's scroll list:

  • Click the Show Destinations button to show destinations.

  • Click the Show Anchors button to show anchors.

  • Click the Show Page Links button to show links to pages in this layout.

  • Choose Name to show items in the list by their names, or choose Link to show items in the list by their URL.

Formatting hyperlinks

By default, hyperlinked text is underlined and colored according to the default colors defined in the Preferences dialog box (Print Layout or Digital Layout > General). You can override the default appearance of individual hyperlinks by selecting the specific word(s) in the hyperlink and applying the desired formatting (color, size, and font).

If you change the formatting of a paragraph that contains hyperlinked text, the hyperlinks will reflect the font and font-size changes of the paragraph, while retaining their default color and underlined text formatting.

Editing and deleting destinations

To edit the name or URL of a destination, select the destination in the Hyperlinks palette and click the Edit button . Any changes you make apply to all hyperlinks in this layout that use the destination.

To delete a destination, select the destination in the Hyperlinks palette and click the Delete button . All hyperlinks to this destination are removed from the layout.

Alternatively, you can edit and delete destinations using the Hyperlinks dialog box (Edit menu).

Editing and deleting anchors

To edit the name of an anchor, select the anchor in the Hyperlinks palette and click the Edit button . You can edit the name of the anchor and the anchor itself. If an anchor does not have a name, only the anchor displays in the Hyperlinks palette.

To delete an anchor, select the anchor in the Hyperlinks palette and click the Delete button . All hyperlinks to this anchor are removed from the layout.

Alternatively, you can edit and delete anchors using the Hyperlinks dialog box (Edit menu).

Editing and deleting hyperlinks

To edit the destination of a hyperlink, select the hyperlink in the layout, click the Edit button in the Hyperlinks palette, and then enter a new value in the URL field or choose an option from the drop-down menu next to the URL field.

To remove the destination of a hyperlink, select the hyperlink in the layout and then click No Hyperlink in the Hyperlinks palette or choose Style > Hyperlink > Delete.

Navigating using the Hyperlinks palette

In addition to creating hyperlinks in the Hyperlinks palette, you can use the Hyperlinks palette to navigate to hyperlinks and anchors in the active QuarkXPress layout. To navigate using the Hyperlinks palette:

  • To view a destination that is a URL, double-click that destination in the Hyperlinks palette. The URL is passed to the designated Web browser.

  • To navigate to an anchor in the active layout, double-click the anchor's name in the Hyperlinks palette.